Dating basaltic

Sunrise in Aztlan (Page 2 of 2)

2020.11.13 04:22 BearLair64 Sunrise in Aztlan (Page 2 of 2)

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~~~ PAGE 2 of 3

Silvio put on his turn signal and turned into the rest stop. He and Bjorn exited the car and entered the restroom. Art stayed and kept an eye on the tractor trailer and its escorts. There was an old white short bus stopped beside the truck. The windows were darkened but presently the back door opened, and several girls were ushered from the bus into the truck trailer. Art used his mini binoculars to check the logo on the side of the bus. It was from a local reservation. These girls were likely native girls… Americans, being sold to the slavers.
Art took over driving for a while since he was most rested. Due to Bjorn’s bulk, Silvio took the back seat. They left out ahead of the convoy but just ahead. They travelled just below the speed limit and before long, the lead car overtook them. When they reached a two-lane passing area, Art pulled to the right lane and let them pass. He stayed behind them and just sped up for occasional glimpses. He’d have to get closer soon, they were nearing the area where their intel said that the convoys disappeared, and it would be daylight in a couple of hours.
They’d been climbing for some time and off to the side of their car, Bjorn and Silvio looked out at the moonlight over the mesas. It was a stirring sight and each man sank into his own thoughts. At last the convoy turned onto a plain dirt track. There were no markings or signs, but it was well maintained. Art turned off the headlights and followed by moonlight and the red taillights in the distance. They wound through several of the mesas and low hills, and then turned onto a downward track that lead into a canyon. Art pulled into some mesquite brush on the right and turned off the engine. “What’s the idea boss? We may lose them.” Silvio opined from the back seat.
“We can track them.” Art said confidently. “There is nowhere else to go. Down into the canyon. There must be a settlement or something down there. Weird but hey, weird’s our specialty. That’s a one lane dirt road. If we go too far, we’ll have to stop behind them. If they drop off and do a turnaround, we’ll be trapped. Now, how about we unass the car, get our lights and night vision gear, some ropes, and take a shortcut down the canyon wall. Save us some walking down that dirt road which may come under unfriendly observation at any time and hopefully they don’t have much farther to go.”
**** * ****
They made it to the canyon floor and paralleled the track for a few miles. There was an odd, rhythmic sound from up ahead, as though drums and many voices rose in a chant. They looked at one another uneasily. The sound drifted in the dry dessert air, then abruptly ceased, started again for a moment, then stopped for good. They could see that dawn had arrived above the canyon rim but in between, the shadows prevailed. Up ahead, the road simply ended at a wall where the wide split in the land became a box canyon. The vehicle tracks led straight up to it and… vanished. Silvio led the others to a pile of rocks from which they observed, hopefully without being observed in turn. “This will do for now until we can figure out their security system and who may be watching.”
“I’d like to take a look at the box end wall,” rumbled Bjorn. “I can stay close to it and remain in the shadows. They should last a while longer.” He continued speaking before either of the elder men could raise an objection, “I know, I’m massive. However, I can move as well as anyone. In this outdoor space, the scale makes me as puny as either of you. Besides, I need to do something useful… I’m training, right?”
Art nodded and Silvio patted his charge lightly on the shoulder. “You have your spada bear cub?” To which Bjorn smiled in a manner that made it evident how he’d earned the sobriquet, “bear” as he patted the two-foot long blade sheathed at his hip.
Before any more conversation, the young giant was off among the rocks and sidling up to the wall. Once he was there, he blended into the surroundings surprisingly well. Had the two senior members of the team not known he was there they could easily have missed him. “Your trainee was well prepared in the Defense Management School. He moves well. I hear that Ed herself recruited him.”
Silvio beamed a feral grin at his team leader, “He’s green but surprisingly capable. He has no idea of course. I worry for the day that he realizes what a rare combination of talents he has. He’ll want to take over the outfit.”
Art glanced at where he thought Bjorn should be and then looked back at Silvio, “Maybe he should. I’ve lost him.”
Silvio chuckled, “I kept talking because I hoped you had eyes on him. I lost him before you first spoke… ah, wait… yes, there he is. Looks like he’s on the way back to us.
Presently Bjorn slipped down onto his belly beside his bosses. “Mystery solved. You’ll be able to tell when it gets light, but that wall is just a camouflaged rolling gate. Works well here, since the canyon narrows, and the area stays in the shade most of the day. I couldn’t really see inside but I heard some people talking and smelled cigarette smoke. Definitely guards on duty on the other side. I counted only two voices but... there are likely more nearby.”
“We’d need a full unit to take it straight on. Not really what we want to do until we have enough information to solve the mystery.” Art replied to Bjorn’s report. “Guess we’ll be climbing the wall again, then backtracking along the wall topside.” Silvio and Bjorn nodded ruefully, and the men began the climb and backtrack...
**** * ****
Daisy settled in among the other women in the back of the truck. She heard the locks engage on the outside, nothing to do but get acquainted on the journey ahead. She waited for her eyes to adjust to the gloom. Some light leaked in from the doors and there were small screens around the walls of the trailer that allowed some air and light to penetrate. Unlikely to suffocate, she thought, but still pretty murky, dark outside. She looked around her but all of the women… mostly girls, sat with their faces down, hair drooping, and were clearly wrapped in miserable thoughts.
She considered her own position. She wasn’t overly worried, and she trusted her team how talented they were, even though this gang had gotten the jump on her and Jay-bird. I hope he’s okay, poor guy, she winced when she thought of how it must have hurt him when the bullet entered his leg. It looked bad, top of the knee… She shook off those thoughts, unproductive! The men had questioned her briefly about anyone else following them. She’d insisted that she and Jay were not following them on purpose but had intended to rob the truck stop since cops were thin on the ground out this way. They’d been dubious but she was a decent enough actress and pointed out that she and Jay were both armed and had done some damage. It helped that she carried no ID and their vehicle had been pretty standard.
She once more let her eyes roam around the trailer rig. There, that one in the front corner nearest the cab. Her gaze was fixed, but angry rather than hopeless. Her clothes were nicer than anyone else’s, including Daisy’s… it was her! Daisy recognized her from the file photo, this was Reyna Marquez-Morales. No fuc… no way! She knew that the odds were astronomical. Then again, the trucks likely didn’t roll that often, Reyna had probably been held somewhere for a while to let the initial buzz settle. It really hadn’t been long since she’d gone missing, just over a couple of weeks, and here she was in a tractor trailer, shoved in among the regular girls like so much cattle. For that matter, so was Daisy.
She wanted desperately to talk to the girl but feared that some of the others might be snitches. She cleared her throat, “Anybody here speak English?” She tried to sound hopeful. Her Spanish was native and excellent, but they didn’t need to know that; …Crickets, apparently no one did. Only a few even bothered to look up at her. Reyna just continued to glare at a spot on the opposite wall. “Great, guess it’s going to be a boring trip.” She let a little defiance creep into her voice.
“I speak English, but I don’t want to talk right now. Maybe later. At the moment, I’m tired and angry and want to use a real toilet, not that bucket in the corner.” Reyna said as she flicked her chin to the opposite corner where there was a five-gallon bucket with a toilet seat and cover mounted in a corner.
Daisy had simply assumed that the reek of the place was produced by pent in humans, but the honey-bucket definitely added to the effluvium. “Thanks” Daisy nodded. “Can’t blame you. When you’re ready.”
**** * ****
Moctezuma placed his feathered cloak on the peg in his chambers. Servants did most things for him but only he touched the sacred garments and accoutrements. He eagerly awaited the arrival of the “special ones” the pair that would be sacrificed on the Day of Return. It was when Queztacuatl would return in fury and lead the people to reclaim this land. On the last Return, He was embodied in the Cortez, a conqueror, with a similar appearance and name to what was in the old prophecy. The priest king knew, based on later prophecy that this time, the Quetza would lead beside Moctezuma.
He'd only recently found the right Bride for The Sun, but he’d known the groom for years. The eldest son of one of the most powerful cartel bosses; the girl would be a good match for him, both the children of the ruling class from within the light and dark of society. The boy’s father had willingly offered him, he had plenty of other sons and this one did not show much promise as a criminal mastermind. The usual offerings… offerings, not sacrifices, were the discarded souls of the world who’d sought dreams of freedom and prosperity, but whose bodies were instead used up by cruel masters. Women shattered by the sex trade, men exhausted by work in fields and processing plants: mere peasants, those offerings. Yet these two children of powerful people would be a true sacrifice. Something special for the people, la raza, to offer The Gods as a means to gain Their favor and to welcome the coming of Quetzacuatl.
So, he had been taught as he grew into the role of the priest-king of his people. It had become more difficult of late to hide from the modern governments and drones and satellites, he’d had to allow modern technology to blend with the ancient ways. Yet that would soon all be done; the bride had arrived just in time. There were no ill portents as had preceded the arrival of Cortez; this time there would be triumph and The Gods would Return to claim this land for Their people!
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Once they were up top and back at the car, the truncated DMTS team took a little time to more thoroughly hide the vehicle. The main concern was that these guys would have aerial surveillance, likely drones. They retrieved more gear and drank plenty of water. The dry air drained the moisture from their bodies with even slight exertion. Art contacted Pearly Gates on his closed channel sat phone.
“Looks like Jay’s gonna make it but he may end up with a new leg to match his arm. Kid’ll be a bionic man before it’s all done. We’ll have to start calling him ‘Blue-Jay’ with all that cobalt blue hide. She took care of the cleaning at the truck stop and the few potential witnesses were all well paid and frightened enough to have seen and heard nothing. Local LE has been redirected. All surveillance video for the date in question has been mysteriously looped. She was able to capture our coordinates. Of course, she and Jim Bui want to join us now that Jay is stable. They’ll contact us when they reach the turn-off to the dirt road.”
Bjorn pointed back along the roadway they’d followed, “Dirt on top but you can see it’s paved underneath the sand and gravel. No wonder it was in good shape, asphalt underlayment.”
Silvio nodded, “Good eye Bjorn. Now find us a place to bed down until we get the rest of our team.”
Bjorn did just that and they were soon ensconced among some rocks near the canyon rim. A place from which they could watch without being observed and rest in preparation for a busy night.
Toward evening, Jim and Pearly Gates arrived and soon had their new SUV hidden near the car. The entire group prepared to set out once full dark arrived. “Any word on Daisy?” Pearly Gates asked anxiously.
Art shook his head, “No Pearly Gates, we haven’t seen the occupants of the truck and it hasn’t yet left the canyon.”
As the sun sank until it met with the western horizon, they heard, very faintly this time, the rhythmic thumping and chants as the canyon acted like an enormous speaker and piped the sounds to them. Not many other people would have noticed but DMT Solutions Teams were trained to do so and most of this team had experiences that led them to notice far more than was common. Then the noises were drowned by the yips and wails of nearby coyotes, plaintively calling into the coming night. It was time to go…
They were unsure of what happened to the people who disappeared into the canyon, but they knew that Daisy was in grave danger. As a trainee, Bjorn had known her the least amount of time, but he’d learned to like and respect the young woman. She appeared small and soft but could pack a wallop when the need arose and had the energy of, “a BB in a glass bowl” as she’d proudly claimed on more than one occasion. He could see that Pearly Gates was the most affected. She and Daisy were like sisters. Pearly Gates had taken on a cold seething anger and he could see the struggle within her to maintain a calm approach.
They desperately needed information on the interior of the facility and how it operated. He and Pearly Gates now peered over the rim of the canyon wall through advanced night vision devices. The, “Technological” Team of DMTS had produced many near miracle tech devices and these were no exception. The canyon opened up dramatically after the choke point. The buildings along the sides were cleverly worked into the natural rock for the most part but the… city, there was no other word for it, extended onto the canyon floor as well. At the wall of the actual end of the box canyon, rose… a pyramid, a real live pyramid, right here in the good ole USA he mused. “If even only half those buildings are dwellings, we are looking at a population of around five to ten thousand. More if the caves extend deeply into the surrounding rock.” he rumbled to his fellow scout.
“Hhmmmnn…” Pearly Gates growled in return, possibly in agreement, but probably with some reservations. Her tawny locks gleamed a silver grey in the moonlight, for all the world like a puma. He was reminded of those creatures when her eyes flashed in his direction. “We aren’t going to get any more information from here. Let’s go back and see what the drones found and the satellite mapped.”
They returned to the makeshift camp inside the boulders. Silvio, in his vulpine manner, suddenly appeared from the darkness; it was almost enough to startle Bjorn, never a good idea, even though he’d been trained to control himself. Pearly Gates, already on edge, snapped at the lean field agent, “Seriously? You should know better Silvio, never jump out in front of fellow predators unless you are looking for a fight.”
Silvio nodded tightly in acknowledgement, “Yes, you know it works both ways though, the two of you were moving very quietly. No need to startle the rest of the Diablos Tejanos. We are all on edge with worry over Daisy. I’ve downloaded the Sat information to your devices. Art and Jim Bui are bringing in the drones and we can start sorting out our plan.”
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“So, I don’t know much more than you.” Reyna spoke quietly to Daisy, who had moved to sit beside her, despite the proximity of the rank honey-bucket. “I was in Galveston with some friends, we have a beach house there at Jamaica Beach. A couple of girls I didn’t know came with a friend and I think they must have played a part in taking me. We hung out and partied for a while, then… I woke up in a dark room. They would turn on a red lightbulb when they fed me. I was able to figure out where the toilet-sink combination and the cot were. Everything was metal. I couldn’t really see the person… maybe people, who brought the meals, but I think they were all women. Maybe like these.” She waved her hand slightly to indicate their fellow passengers on the journey to misery.
Daisy nodded along but remained silent, she wanted the girl to keep talking. After a moment, Reyna obliged, “Then they came for me, the goons, the ones that put you in here with us. Neither one of us belongs here. The rest of the women are undocumented, I talked to a few, mostly prostitutes…” she whispered the last. “I can’t believe this. Do you know who my mother is? Has there been anything on the news?”
Daisy wasn’t ready to show her hand, “No idea, I don’t watch news, bor-ring! I’ve seen some things though. These chics don’t look like pros, they look like sheep. Sheep that have been kicked around pretty hard.”
Reyna shrugged, “Whatever, I just hope that my friends were able to get help. If my mom finds out, she’ll send someone to get me.” She again slipped into a whisper, “She’s in Congress, they’ll have to send someone. She’s pretty well known, even some talk of her being in line for a bigger office. I just have to wait.”
Daisy again remained silent, apparently the girl was spoiled and vacuous enough to assume that none of the other women would note or comprehend her whispers. She had to do her job but, what an arrogant little arse-tard! Definitely had to keep that to herself. Reyna had seemed to hold it together pretty well but now she sniveled a little, a small whimper and sniff of soft crying. Someone in this trailer seemed to be crying quietly at all times, like they took it in shifts. The truck slowed considerably and made one sharp turn, then headed down a steep grade. Eventually it leveled out for a while. Then it stopped.
There were rumbles and voices outside and the truck once again lurched forward. The poor light that penetrated the vents began to turn gray when the truck came to what felt like a significant halt. The driver took the vehicle out of gear and she heard the cab doors open and shut. Presently, the first bright light of the morning greeted her. It wasn’t too bad, there were still shadows since… ah, canyon walls, that’s what occluded the light.
The “herd” of women left the truck and women in plain cotton shifts with intricate embroidery met them and spoke soothingly as they were ushered into a plain building that Daisy quickly recognized as a dormitory… like in a jail but maybe a little nicer… a newer jail. While one of the elder women gave a short introduction, she focused on a different discussion that occurred just outside the still opened door. She noted that one of the eldest of the women spoke to the lead thug, “That was close. We have only one left, the one for sunset tonight. Tomorrow is the big day, but we still have to keep up the Cycle of The Sun. This won’t be the last load.”
The thug shrugged, “The Big M’s the one who ordered us to time it this way. We kept her close to where we took her until the immediate search was over. She’s feisty but empty-headed. Still, we can’t put her off for too long with stories about ransom. There’s another one, she’d be good for sunset today or tomorrow. She caused us some trouble. Might as well take care of it…”
“C’mon young one, we are going inside to look at the rest of the dormitory.” One of the women in the embroidered shifts smiled at Daisy and indicated with her hand that she should move along. Daisy saw that the smile did not touch her eyes, they were black and hard, like obsidian...
**** * ****
It had been relatively easy to access the city from the canyon walls, but the team then had to figure out how to move about without getting caught and then how to find Daisy and possibly Reyna among thousands of other people. They weren’t even completely sure that Reyna would be in the city. She could be anywhere on the trail of misery they’d followed. Still, she was their primary mission. Art had stayed above, their communication link with a Cleaner Team on standby. That group would take care of any unfortunate messes, to include avenging their deaths should such a need arise.
They’d decided to start with the pyramid… there was nothing else like it. Surely it was the center of whatever was happening in this place. The moon rose above the canyon wall and shed some light, but there was very little visible artificial lighting. It was likely that the community cooperated in keeping the location off the maps. The central plaza appeared deserted and the pyramid rose ahead in the gloom, massive and tall but wide enough at each level to still appear somewhat squat. The lowest level extended into the canyon wall. The second level appeared to be flush with it. The rest ascended in smaller platforms until at the top, a large basalt block rested free and clear of everything but its enormous base, the pyramid. It was set so the bottom of it was just above the rim of the canyon, high in the sky and in position to greet the rising sun and bid farewell as it set.
Bjorn and Silvio took a position near one of the structures from which no sounds of occupation emanated. Pearly Gates and Jim Bui tackled the climb from one of the sides. There were no deliberate steps on the south face, only the east and west faces but the surface was fairly rough and there were carvings and protrusions that in combination with the gentle slope, made the climb easy for their levels of experience. They made the ascent in under ten minutes. Bjorn watched as the scouts sunk low at the apex to avoid being silhouetted against the night sky with its bright moon and myriad of stars, all made clear by the absence of humidity. Had he not known they were there he would not have seen the few tiny signs that they displayed.
He was starting to get nervous and noted that Silvio squirmed as well, when a shadow rose from the silvery light. It was quickly joined by another. The scouts had returned. Pearly Gates spoke in low tones, “That thing is just what it looks like, an altar. It’s been cleaned but there are clear signs that blood has flowed across the surface of that block, it went into a drain in the center. The back of the block that faces the cliff has an opening, like a chute. It seriously reeks. Flashlight beam couldn’t find the bottom but there is definitely airflow, like the entire pyramid is breathing; very dramatic. There is a narrow stair that leads up and down the north face from the top of the second level; a door leads into the canyon wall. Apparently, anyone who needs to magically appear can simply ascend that stair and voila! The whole view from the top looks like this is a theater stage.”
Jim Bui watched their trail and remained vigilant during the report and added only, “There is a stench of death in that place. The basalt block had two slight indentations… as though two human bodies could be placed side by side with heads in opposite directions. Kinda creepy, like some old pulp story, Tarzan or Conan, maybe Cthulu… but with actual people dead at the end of the ceremonies. Maybe they needed so many people to fill up the pyramid with bodies, who knows?” He shivered a little. Jim Bui was tough but the situation had him on edge.
Pearly Gates remained cold, “We still don’t know where Daisy is or Reyna. Should we look around the buildings? There’s no way to tell when or even if they might be brought to this place.”
In the end, they decided to take a look around the city. Pearly Gates and Jim Bui started at the base of the eastern stairs and Bjorn and Silvio took the western end. The streets were squared off because of the buildings that lined them, yet it seemed that the buildings were staggered so that there were no direct approaches to the pyramid until one cleared the last offset, then it was a short walk into the plaza and to the base of the steps.
They maintained a leisurely pace, stalking quietly and staying close to walls that cast moon-shadows when possible. The night was moving on rapidly and it was eerie how quiet the complex was when they considered the number of people they’d observed and heard earlier. Every roof and upper wall was left in natural basic colors, but each lower level had been used as a canvas for murals of ancient native life and depictions of the myths and legends of pre-Columbian tribes in their glory days. It was difficult for Bjorn to avoid becoming engrossed in the tales that the artwork told, but then he saw one that he could not ignore. He touched Silvio’s shoulder and then tapped it and pointed to the pertinent wall.
It displayed the same feathered serpent or dragon figure that they’d observed at La Quetza Cantina. It appeared to fly above and preside over a pyramid. On the pyramid were figures, a brightly bedecked one stood above two others, very obviously male and female characters. The colorful person held a long, black object above them; it looked like a large knife that he intended to plunge into the chests of the supine figures on the dull black alter. There were two other figures in ornate dress, another male and female, who stood by with basins to catch the blood that would surely flow…
Bjorn and Silvio looked at one another briefly, then Silvio indicated with a nod and hand gesture that they should keep going. Yet at the end of the building, they had to halt. They’d reached the parking area, across which was a large garage shed that contained the tractor trailer and escort vehicles that they’d followed. Two men stood beside them, visible only because one was smoking. When the breeze shifted, Bjorn could make out brief snatches of conversation but nothing intelligible. Silvio signaled that he should wait and then he ducked around the corner to the front of the two-story structure. He returned presently and signaled for Bjorn to follow him. They reached the back of the building and rounded the corner together and once more, two figures emerged from the gloom of night. Pearly Gates and Jim Bui…
**** * ****
Daisey quietly scouted through the dormitory in search of an escape route other than the front or back doors on the first floor. She found none, there were no windows in the structure. Not even in the dorm monitors’ suite. The door at the top of the stairs had been locked but she worked for a company that focused on solutions. She heard light snoring from the two figures that were there as guides and guards. She crept past their open door and tried the back door. Locked. Looking at it, she decided that she could open it, but first she checked for alarms… none, the typical captives were cowed before they even arrived, and security had clearly grown lax.
She exited and was pleased to find a bright glowing moon above to greet her. She glanced around and saw a figure disappear around a corner. Odd, the rest of the complex was as quiet as a grave. Might as well follow, she figured she had about an hour to explore.
**** * ****
Bjorn felt a heavy tap on top of his shoulder and smoothly flowed into a kneeling posture as he came to a stop. He looked around first with his eyes and then slowly he turned his head. Silvio was ahead of him and Jim Bui was just behind. Pearl Gates was the rearguard. She was faced in the direction from which they’d come and based on her stance, she was prepared for a fight. Jim Bui had his heavy knife in hand and Bjorn realized that he’d instinctively drawn his own oversized scramasaex without conscious thought. He’d passed on the signal to Silvio, who now stood watch at the next corner, in the shadows. There was the slightest glint of the sharp edges of his stiletto. He couldn’t see it, but he knew that Pearly Gates would have held her pistol with the sound suppressor. They were completely prepared for an attack. He wondered if the men who had been out with the trucks had spotted them and followed.
Pearly Gates quickly stood and stepped forward, toward their stalker. Bjorn’s first instinct was to rise and assist her against the opponent who grappled with her. Then he realized that their shadow was none other than Daisy. The, “grapple” was a warm embrace.
**** * ****
The team continued their silent trek until they were near the plaza. They gathered around in a pool of shadow and spoke in sotto voce tones to make their plans. Daisy insisted on going back to the dormitory, “I have to protect Reyna. I don’t know when they’ll take her, but if we are sacrifices, we have to let it go forward until we can figure out a rescue for all of the captives. For that matter, they may take me first, I am a problem child.” She gave a wicked grin with that.
Pearly Gates slipped a small caliber pistol into Daisy’s palm, “Now you are a problema for these freaks.” Her grin was downright savage.
Bjorn presented her with one of his smaller blades, “So, what’s the plan?”
**** * ****
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2020.11.06 20:01 GreatWyrmGold Implementum Exercises

I decided to answeperform the exercises in yesterday's Extra Materials, intending to post it in the comment section. Then I realized that 22 questions would be way too big a comment, even if I didn't answer most of them with multiple paragraphs. So I'm putting them here, instead.
If you guys want to answer the exercises yourselves, feel free. But I'd advise against reading or copying mine—that probably violates whatever academic honor code is used in the magical world, and they probably take that thing seriously. (I'm also kinda interested in what other people have to say about my answers.)

Exercise: What might be the difference between a square granite slab and a smooth igneous rock?
Granite is known for being an unusually heavy and hard rock, and a square slab evokes the shape of a wall (while being even harder to use). While the negative effects on travel and precision would likely be enhanced, it might have a small benefit when used for defensive magic, particularly of one's demense.
It is difficult to divine much from the label "igneous rock"; the associations we have with basalt are quite different than with obsidian, pumice, or hornblende...or granite, which is also an igneous rock. However, a smooth rock appears more refined and may be easier to handle; many of the negative side effects of a rock would likely be reduced (though not the metaphorical weight).

An exercise: what are two objects that are not on this list that you might consider a close relative of the wand? How might they differ in use?
A club, baton, or other bludgeoning instrument is similar in form to a wand, but with vastly different implications. Association with the Practice is utterly irrelevant, and associations with precision and nuance are replaced with brute force and violence. In many ways, a club implement would be closer to a sword implement than a wand, though lacking the sword's refinement or minor defensive aspect. A baton would likely be a wiser choice, as it is commonly associated with law, order, and "civilized" violence.
By contrast, a deck of tarot cards has many of the same implications as a wand (particularly its connection to "magic"/"occult," e.g. the Practice). Both wands and cards have some association with dexterity (wands through precise manipulation of the tip, cards more through card tricks). However, its form is much different, which changes how it can be used. In particular, it lacks the direct nature of the wand, making it less effective at performing or altering immediate Practice. In addition, tarot cards are strongly associated with a specific form of magic (divination), and the association between cards and gambling may be risky.

An exercise: consider the effects if the item inscribed was a dismembered finger.
I would advise against eating it, even if your friends are in danger.
My first (serious) thought draws a connection between a dismembered finger and the Skull, as a symbol of death; on further thought, I do not think this impossible, but it is unlikely to be the primary influence of the finger.
A dismembered finger is more strongly associated with violence than death—you can lose a finger without dying, but not without some form of vicious and cruel violence being inflicted on you. Moreover, a properly-prepared skull shows some amount of refinement, whereas a dismembered finger is simply a body part without a body. Finally, while the skull (as part of the head) is somewhat associated with contemplation, the finger is must more declarative and immediate, possibly serving as a weak and macabre wand when needed.
Exercise: Consider an early ritual you learned. How could you decorate a scepter to create a similar effect on a regular basis?
I have not learned any rituals (duh), and so will point to the first ritual Blake Thorburn used (awakening aside)—drawing a vestige to him while warding off the worst effects of Others drawn to his crude offering of power. Warding off Others traditionally involves a circle of some purifying or pure material, such as salt; for a scepter, bands of gold or silver may be more appropriate. It may be a good idea to break these bonds with a “conduit” for bestowing power upon those you wish to offer it to.
Exercise: In a brief writing exercise, explore what the spear might be like, compared to the sword. What might the axe be like? What would one gain and what would one lose?
Some would suggest that a Practitioner with a spear implement would have an advantage over one with a sword, that the sword would have advantage over the axe, and the axe over the spear. Of course, since they use the Emblem as their implement, they lack personal experience with such things.
An axe, like a club, would sacrifice the defensive aspect of a sword; a spear might as well, though the spear's greater reach may translate to being able to defend yourself by keeping away from harm. They also lose the sword's associations with nobility.
The type of axe matters greatly. A battleaxe is associated with a brutal, savage form of warfare; a woodsman’s axe is associated with hard labor and the desolation of nature; a fire axe is associated with destructive rescue; and so on. They all share a strong destructive aspect, however.
A spear, on the other hand, has fairly consistent associations. Practically speaking, a spear grants greater reach than either sword or axe, and is about as specialized in warfare as the sword. But spears are specialized in a fairly specific form of warfare. With the exception of lances, spears are almost always associated with commoner’s warfare, cooperative warfare, or both. Look to the medieval peasant, finding an inexpensive weapon that is simple to use and will keep the enemy at a safe distance; by contrast, look to the phalanx and its descendants in the Hellenistic and Roman periods. In both cases, a spear is not the weapon of a lone warrior, but of someone fighting in a group, whether massed infantry or a careful line of soldiers.
Exercise: What is an object not on this list that might have a similar social meaning to the chalice’s? What’s an object not on this list that might have a similar ability to hold onto or manage power?
Like chalices, quill pens are archaic, associated specifically with the ancient upper class. Like chalices, their use has been supplanted by simpler and more practical objects in the modern world.
Bottles, lockets, and sponges may be able to contain or absorb power of varying types and amounts.

Exercise: What might the effect of a book filled with poetry be? A book of names?
As always, the metaphorical devil is in the details. Shel Silverstein, T.S. Eliot, and Homer all wrote poetry, but the effects of tome implements filled with each of their poetry would be wildly different. Silverstein’s poetry is lighthearted and often surreal; perhaps it would draw attention from younger faerie or child-Others, but at the expense of seeming somewhat childish to others. Eliot’s poetry is more dour, existential, and most importantly revered; his poetry would not provoke nearly the same reaction, perhaps finding appeal among the faerie courts of Low Spring or Winter. Homer’s epics are even more revered, and focus on ancient acts of warfare and heroism; they would find traction among martial Others, including faerie of Summer courts, High and Below. Whatever the poetry, however, it seems likely that one’s deals with at least some types of faeries would be improved.
Similarly, the influence of a book of names would vary based on whose names they were. However, regardless of the names, it would imply at least a claim to some administrative role, whether a mundane civil one or a cosmic, perhaps mortal, one. If one already held some claim over the people whose names were listed in the book, the implement would likely strengthen that claim.

Exercise: Go look up or find three rings, as different from one another as possible. From their designs, infer what benefits they might offer.
In absence of visual aids, I will discuss three classic rings from fantasy media: Andrew Ketterley’s rings from The Magician’s Nephew, the One Ring from Lord of the Rings, and Havel’s Ring from the Dark Souls series.
Ketterley’s rings are most notable for essentially coming in pairs; you need one yellow and one green ring to properly use their effects. The materials they were made out of were, to my memory, unclear; for the sake of contrast, let us assume they were made out of a cheap material, such as plastic or painted wood. If this is true, then the rings would likely make it difficult for the Practitioner to acquire and hold on to wealth or similar forms of power, though cheap facsimiles thereof might be easier to come by or last longer. The simplicity of these rings makes them simple to analyze; their only solid characteristic is the color, which associates the yellow ones with the sun or dust and the green ones with plant life or wind. The simplicity itself may also be a drawback, making intricate Practice more difficult or prone to failure, but could be framed as a sign of unknown potential.
The One Ring is also relatively simple—a golden band, with a phrase inscribed within and without. Whether written in Tolkien’s Tengwar script or a legible Latin script, it would be recognized as an expensive piece of fantasy jewelry. This student does not know the effect of associating one’s Practice with Innocents’ fantasy novels, but it is likely to cast a shadow over the user. Aside from this, the otherwise golden band is quite a standard ring—pricey, so be sure, but not exceptionally so. Possibly the inscription would lend the user’s Practice to ruling, finding, bringing, and binding certain things.
Havel’s Ring is quite unlike the other two. While the most elegant of Havel’s possessions, the ring is still somewhat crude compared to typical rings. The band seems to be made of some yellowish metal, perhaps bronze, but it is overshadowed by the stones set into it. The stones are all gray and roughly spherical, with one large and smooth one surrounded by dozens of smaller and rougher stones. The stones, while somewhat lustrous, do not seem to be precious or semiprecious stones. The end result is a ring which mimics the affect of affluence without any of the polish or elegance of a typical ring. This strikes me as a clash between goblin and faerie sensibilities, leaning somewhat towards goblinoid irreverence.

Exercise: The last two implements were closed circles. What might another closed circle be that you could use as an implement. Can you think of any other objects with distinct shapes that are related to shapes you know from elementary diagrams?
Crowns vary greatly in design, but many form closed circles. Some also have projections resembling more elaborate forms of an embattled border or palissadé line, though those may not be considered “elementary”. It is common for talismans to be created in or imprinted with various “occult” symbols, many of which resemble elemental symbols or imperative/referential marks.

Exercise: Can you think of another very old object that sees almost no use now?
No, because I lack the context of growing up in a magical world. If I had to guess, though...animal skins as means of shapeshifting play a big part in a shocking breadth of cultures, but don’t show up much in modern fantasy (including Wildbow’s P-verse, thus far).

Exercise: The staff is comparable to the wand and sword. Can you think of another object that could be a close cousin of two other things on this list?
As mentioned, tarot cards share some associations with wands. They also share the coin’s associations with fate, fortune, and gambling.

Exercise: a practitioner flips a wooden nickel, his implement. What does this tell you about him?
Most importantly, that his implement is a wooden nickel.
Physical “wooden nickels” are associated with times of economic distress, but are also printed for expressive purposes, e.g. to commemorate certain events or express one’s personality (and trade with others who have done the same). We might suppose that this Practitioner seeks to express his identity within a community, remember some event from his past, or both.
However, rhetorically, wooden nickels are a reminder to be cautious in one’s deals; one would likely be wise to heed such advice when dealing with this practitioner.

Exercise: A member of a secretive group chooses an implement with an emblem of a flower that represents their resistance group, but in their case, the emblem is hidden by default. What might be the effect of this?
It may be many decades before they can spring into action, depending on how long the Avatar stays in that iceberg. Maybe I should dial back the pop culture jokes.
Choosing an emblem representing their resistance group would align the Practitioner and their Practice to the group’s cause (though the effects of this are difficult to guess without knowing what is being resisted and why). However, hiding an Implement whose effect is derived from recognizing its allegiance is likely to blunt any effect—positive or negative—which it may provide. Perhaps it would intensify the effect of the Implement on the rare occasions when it was revealed and actively used, but this is merely speculation.
On the other hand, wearing the emblem of a resistance group openly would likely restrict their Practice in other ways, ranging from social ostracization to death.

Exercise: Consider how the rope might differ. Conversely, the thread is very different from the chain, but how might they be similar?
The two are similar in more ways than not; both are flexible, serve as boundaries, and are associated with bindings mundane and supernatural. Ropes come in many forms, but in general they would appear more rustic and less harsh than a “typical” chain. A Practitioner seeking to “tame” wild Others may do well to evoke the image of a herdsman rather than a jailor; depending on region and intended focus, it may even be desirable to tie the rope into a lass.

Exercise: the skull is linked to Death incarnate. What sort of object might be intrinsically linked to Nature? To Adoration? To Mourning?
Mistletoe and holly. Something spotlight-ey? A veil, usually black in Western cultures.

Exercise: Think of an ignoble version of another implement on this list.
A beer stein could be considered an ignoble, or at least uncultured, version of the Chalice. A hood could be seen as akin to an ignoble Mask, though the Mask is hardly the noblest of implements.

Exercise: When using one’s own national flag as a standard, what sorts of Others might be drawn to it?
The answer varies depending on the country. For my nation’s flag, violent Others such as Dogs of War might be drawn to it; the flag of Vatican City may draw angels; and the flag of a very young nation (such as Kosovo or South Sudan) would be unlikely to draw elder Others.
Regardless of details, it is likely to draw Others which feel affinity for the nation, whether due to their nature echoing the nation’s own or some feeling of patriotism (likeliest for young Others which remember a mortal past).

Exercise: Thought experiment: what materials or design would one use if they wanted to make a lens that would help keep an eye on Death? What about War?
Lenses are, by practical necessity, dominated by clear materials; a lens made of steel or bone would be as foolish an implement as an unworked stone. Hence, special attention must be paid to what the lens is set into.
My first thought for a Death-watching lens is an ocular orbit taken from an appropriate skull—it is associated with death, approximately the right shape and size, and associated with sight. However, if one’s purpose for keeping an eye on Death is warding it off, one should consider setting the lens in a piece of medical equipment, or even using such as an Implement itself.
Lenses have historically been used in war. While the modern era of radar, aerial imaging, and so on has reduced the importance of mundane optics, spyglasses and binoculars were once critical to surveying the battlefield. Choosing one as your Implement would likely have the desired effect, if care was taken in selecting the specific object. A “tactically” patterned set of binoculars or old-fashioned brass spyglass would likely maximize connection to modern and pre-modern warfare, respectively.

Exercise: Give some thought to what a mask of one’s own face would represent or mean.
Two possible meanings come to mind. One is that the details of the mask (expression, “makeup” or lack thereof, marks or removal of blemishes, etc) represent an idealized Self. The other is that your true “face” itself is a “mask”—ie, that your apparent identity is another layer of deception. The latter seems more likely the more closely the mask resembles your face.

Exercise: Consider the differences between lantern and candle. What other object might ‘cast out’ an effect into the immediate environment?
A candle is smaller, weaker, and easier to disrupt than a lantern. It is also more expendable and replaceable; most lanterns can simply be refueled, but a candle must be replaced. While candles can be useful tools in Practice, making one your primary Implement would seem unwise.
Obvious examples of “casting-out” objects range from torches to electric torches. Hearths and fire pits would be similar, but would obviously work better as part of a demense than as an implement. Hoses and similar systems could also have a “casting out” effect, but would need to draw from a greater reservoir of power and have at best limited mobility, making them hilariously unsuitable as implements. Other devices for distributing fluids, aerosols, and gases could be proposed, but the obvious examples may be the best for Practice.

Exercise: What might the flute or pipes do, as an instrument? Can you think of other instruments with a long history of association with magic or fairy tale?
Pipes and flutes have a distinct association with Pan, especially pan pipes, and also with satyrs and other Dionysian beings; through such Greek influences, they may associate one’s Practice with trickery, the wilderness, or a “wild” state of mind.
Ocarinas date back millennia across the world and have a prominent place in some Eastern cultures, but they held relatively little significance in Western cultures until 1998. This student does not feel confident guessing what significance they might hold as an Implement, but would be interested in the opinion of one who is.
In the West, harps have a strong association with high culture, as well as Christian ideas of heaven. Some Western cultures imbue harps with greater or more specific significance, most notably Irish culture.

Exercise: the coffer has a lid. What might be the properties of a handheld, cast-iron cauldron with an open top?
First off, a cauldron would be in many ways like a Plate implement—while not associated with food preparation and archaic Practice, it is an archaic method of food preparation which is associated with the supernatural.
More relevant to the question at hand: The closed lid of a coffer enforces ownership by preventing others from taking what you have claimed. An open-topped container would not do so; moreover, while a coffer may contain or unleash Others, an open-topped container would only hold Others who were willing to rest there. An open-topped container would hence imply a charitable or communal attitude towards power one claims—it is not claimed for the Practitioner themself to use, but for their entire community.
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2020.10.27 13:37 gwensdottir Portrait busts of Cleopatra VII and Julius Caesar, dated to the 1st century BCE. The bust of Cleopatra is of marble, and the bust of Julius Caesar is green basalt. Both are currently located in the Atles Museum in Berlin. (461x640)

Portrait busts of Cleopatra VII and Julius Caesar, dated to the 1st century BCE. The bust of Cleopatra is of marble, and the bust of Julius Caesar is green basalt. Both are currently located in the Atles Museum in Berlin. (461x640) submitted by gwensdottir to u/gwensdottir [link] [comments]


2020.10.26 22:24 travel-notes-oliver Ronda

Ronda
Travelling by car though Andalusia, we visited its main iconic cities. And of course, Ronda is one of them. It was worth visiting at least for the breathtaking views.
https://preview.redd.it/3fmjpwd0biv51.jpg?width=900&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a136794ea20db7518be5c7807093fe23e0567067
Rhonda is a part of Malaga province in the Andalusia region, and its history dates back to centuries BC thanks to the Celtic tribes. the City is located in an unusual landscape – near the gorge, and as it was built into the rocks. The main attraction of the city is the New Bridge, its construction took almost 40 years and was completed in 1793 (as its name implies, something went wrong with the old bridge). It connects the edges of the gorge, as well as the “market” and “old” quarters of the city, and on closer examination gives an understanding of advanced construction technologies of the 18th century, taking into account the specific features of the area.
https://preview.redd.it/scuhp2lzaiv51.jpg?width=1600&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=eeb67ac17ebaf4a31277c1a35fc9591d46aba9d6
Another important attraction is the medieval Arab fortress (Medina), which used the landscape advantages for its direct (military) purpose. You can also look at the remains of Arab baths, which are well preserved. In addition, the city has several iconic buildings – from the city hall to the Gothic churches and cathedrals (there is even a giant’s house). Those who like to walk through the dungeons have the opportunity to go down to the old premises inside the rock, which, by the way, contain remains of troglodyte caves. There is definitely a lot to see in Ronda, and it’s up to you to decide what part of the city’s history to focus on.
https://preview.redd.it/930dek4zaiv51.jpg?width=1600&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6676365ee336d52b6de62db55b558c096fe93b7f
The city impressed us a lot, largely due to its unusual location. If your trip is long enough and you have a couple of extra days left, it makes sense to spend them in Ronda. If the time is limited, you can see the main attractions in one day. By the way, in Rhonda there was a very decent flamenco show in El Quinque – we thought that we would just have dinner, and the show was a pleasant surprise.
https://preview.redd.it/najy3dmyaiv51.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=87f16d16d4e05b62434900fbafd8e0e7899380b3
While we were in the area, we also decided to visit the town of Setenil de Las Bodegas in the province of Cadiz in Andalusia. What makes it interesting is that the houses are also built into the rocks, only in a much more radical form. The reason it attracts tourists is that the entire houses, the walls and roof of which is the basalt rock, form the streets where you can walk (and, of course, take photos). Apart from the unusual views, there is not much more special about the town, just the usual tourist shops and cafes. Next with the car rented at booking autos we moved towards Malaga.
https://preview.redd.it/vjfkjh6yaiv51.jpg?width=1600&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=be01a368712384a922ee54e4cd3579a565ac3cb9
To explore a new city during your visit with a guide you may through excurzilla.
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2020.10.26 21:44 GaGator43 Portrait busts of Cleopatra VII and Julius Caesar, dated to the 1st century BCE. The bust of Cleopatra is of marble, and the bust of Julius Caesar is green basalt. Both are currently located in the Atles Museum in Berlin. (461x640)

Portrait busts of Cleopatra VII and Julius Caesar, dated to the 1st century BCE. The bust of Cleopatra is of marble, and the bust of Julius Caesar is green basalt. Both are currently located in the Atles Museum in Berlin. (461x640) submitted by GaGator43 to ArtefactPorn [link] [comments]


2020.08.24 12:49 JohnBierce The Moral Weight of Worldbuilding

Hey, it's time for another of my long-winded rambles on worldbuilding! Fair warning, giant wall of text ahead.

The process of worldbuilding isn't simply making up a brand new world. In a very real sense, it's an act of describing our world through the process of changing it. Each difference between the constructed world and our world is, in essence, a new girder in a framework describing things that you believe ARE part of our world. Those things that you haven't changed from our own world? Those reveal some of your deepest, most fundamental truths about what you think the world is. In the same way that science fiction about the future is usually more about the present, fantasy worldbuilding is often more about our own world than a new one.
It's exploration via contrast, and the choices you make during that exploration can have deep moral significance.
I want to be clear that I'm not writing this because I see a lot of people going around actively claiming that the worldbuilding of their favorite author is morally neutral. More, it's that I don't see people actively talking about the claims about the real world made by the invented one as often as I would like, and even implicitly treating worldbuilding as though it were just a fun piece of window-dressing in an SF/F novel.
Objectivity:
There's no such thing as true objectivity. Any claim about the world that the speaker claims in turn is "objectively" true should be viewed with deep suspicion. This isn't just a post-modernist affectation, though you'll often find post-modernists saying something similar. (I share post-modernists' deep distrust of grand theories, but I don't think I really fit in their club well otherwise. Though there are a few people who claim that distrust of grand theories is the only thing unifying post modernists, so...) Rather, this rejection of objectivity comes from science, because a lot of scientists these days really, really don't tend to like the idea objectivity very much.
When I got my first field training in geology, the first thing we learned was how to fill out our notebooks. Along with obvious stuff like date, location, and time, there were less obvious things like weather and your mood. That last was one thing my instructors repeatedly mentioned as important: A geologist's interpretation of a rock outcrop tends to vary DRASTICALLY depending on their emotional state. Does the outcrop potentially have evidence that lends credence to a rival's hypothesis? If you're in a bad mood, you're unlikely to be open to that evidence, and unless you note down that you're in a bad mood, you're unlikely to admit you were later on. (Seriously, there are all sorts of famous stories about this from the history of geology.) So on a pragmatic level, owning our personal un-objectivity is simple good practice.
And I can definitely assure you that my training there is hardly unusual. (Also, obligatory complaint about measuring strike-and-dips.)
Owning your biases and compensating for them are much, much more useful in science than denying them and pretending to objectivity.
There are also important historical reasons why so many scientists today avoid claims of objectivity. "Objective" science led to some of the most extreme abuses of science- both moral abuses and abuses of the scientific method. Science in Victorian England was especially rife with these mistakes- see, for instance, the skull-botherers (they preferred to be called craniologists, but screw 'em), pseudoscientists who were convinced they could make systematic judgements about human intelligence via measurements of human skull sizes. Today, we know that brain size has remarkably little to do with intelligence- instead, it's determined more heavily by factors like the number and course of neural connections in your brain. At the time, however, skull-botherers systematically massaged data or changed experimental goal posts, time and time again, to prove that groups lower on the social totem pole at the time (women, non-white people) had inferior intelligence. And they did it, more often than not, under the banner of objectivity. They were finding ways, again and again, to prove their preconceptions and biases, because they refused to acknowledge them. It seems quite likely that many of them were incapable of even recognizing the ways in which they were doing bad science. (For more on the topic, I recommend Stephen Jay Gould's The Mismeasure of Man.)
There are countless other historical examples, but I hope this gets the point across: If you think you're objective, you're fooling yourself. When you worldbuild, you are never doing so objectively. You're coming in with a biased view of our own reality. That's not inherently good or bad, but it is something you need to be aware of.
One great example of this in practice is in fictional depictions of human nature. There aren't many things that will make me drop a book on the spot, but one of them is the "gods and clods" approach to human nature, where an author treats the public as an easily-led mass of sheep, who envy and resent their social betters, who in turn are their social betters entirely because they've earned it, and are inherently superior to the masses. There's also a common idea that runs alongside it that the masses need to be taken in hand and led by those worthier of them. It's weirdly common in Randian Liberterian fiction (Terry Badmean, etc). Or perhaps not so weirdly, but... I don't personally have the rosiest view of human nature, but the "gods and clods" idea rubs me the wrong way on a deep level. I certainly think my more nuanced view of human nature (that, among other things, recognizes stuff like privilege and inherited wealth) is better than the "gods and clods" one, on the grounds of being far more informed by history, but I'm under no impression that I'm more objective. (Though I am less likely to drive a BMW with a John Galt bumper sticker that gets double-parked in front of the cigar shop. I wish that was an ironic exaggeration and not something I've encountered before.)
I have definitely seen authors and readers justify their ideas on human nature as simply "objective" in the past.
Historical Realism:
"This is historically unrealistic" is the battlecry igniting millions of internet fights, and it's frankly exhausting. Unreality is fantasy's stock in trade, after all. Nonetheless, I can't really skip mentioning this one.
The important thing to note is that an overwhelming majority of the time, the "historical realism" being yelled about is itself a fantasy, an image of our past presented to us by Hollywood and past fantasy authors, where the Roman Empire was a white-marble bastion of stability and learning instead of the unstable technicolor shitshow it actually was, where knights were noble heroes instead of belligerent armored drunken frat boys, where everyone in Europe was white, and where Europe was more than the ancient world's equivalent of rural Alabama. And, more often than not, the fact that there are dragons and magic in a fantasy work gets ignored, and the "historical realism" battle cry will be about women, people of color, or LGBTQ+ people.
The recent temper tantrums a lot of people threw recently on Twitter about the creation of rules for magic-propelled wheelchairs for D&D is a great example of the absurdity of the "historical realism" claim, since wheelchairs were absolutely a thing in medieval times, while rapiers and studded leather armor really weren't. You never see huge tantrums about the inclusion of rapiers or studded leather armor in a supposedly medieval setting. (Or, you know, about the inclusion of dragons and wizards.) If a civilization can construct an Apparatus of Kwalish, they can make a magic wheelchair.)
The overwhelming majority of the time, claims of historical realism are directed at fictional characters violating the perceived social hierarchy- the exact same social hierarchy, in fact, that the skull-botherers fudged their data to fit people into. It's not a coincidence.
I'm sure someone will get irritated about this section and "well actually" me on something. (Probably via DM for at least one of them. Don't do that, it's weird. I love a decent argument, but keep it in the proper arena.) Though if you want to "well actually" me over calling the Roman Empire technicolor, and drop some arguments about the aesthetics of their color schemes, that's totally cool. Same with whatever specific historical details you want.
I think the applications of this debate to worldbuilding are fairly obvious.
Historical Invisibility:
There are huge chunks of human history that are missing, simply due to the fact that nobody wrote them down. Or, in the case of much of India's history, wrote them on palm-leaf pages that haven't stood the test of time as well as writing materials in less humid climes. Ancient Mesopotamia is so well-known because their clay tablets are magnificently suited for surviving millennia in the Middle East. All of these missing pieces, however, still altered history. Even though we don't know exactly what went on in those empty periods, it still helped shape our course of history, and if time-travelers were to meddle in these historical blanks, I would guarantee it would still alter our present in alarming and huge ways.
There's also such a thing as geological invisibility. We don't, for instance, know hardly anything about highland dinosaurs, because high altitude regions are usually ones undergoing erosion, making them exceptionally poor locales for fossilization to occur. That means the overwhelming majority of dinosaurs we know about were lowland dinosaurs who lived in regions where fossilization was more likely. Just as with historical invisibility, these missing parts of the world's past have had an effect on the shape of the world today. The species in these missing regions, as well as the missing geological processes themselves, played a vital role in shaping the biospheres of our past, just as our upland species affect the world's biosphere today. If a time-traveler sneezed on a highland dinosaur, giving it a fatal disease, the fact that it would be unlikely to produce fossils wouldn't make the event significantly less impactful on evolutionary history. (Fossilized creatures, almost by definition, have significantly less impact on evolutionary history than unfossilized ones, since they were kinda withdrawn from the biosphere by the fossilization process.)
The choice of what is unknown or lost in worldbuilding is just as important as what is known, if in a more subtle way.
Lenses:
No one can tell all of history, or even know all of it. There's simply too much. Instead, we have to pick specific lenses to see and relate history through. There is no one lens that works for everything- you need to cultivate a wide selection of lenses to understand history through.
Some of my most heavily used lenses include the history of science/technology, economic history, environmental history, and the history of the Indian Ocean Spice Trade (the greatest movement of human wealth on the planet, lasting from the times of Ancient Mesopotamia through the Age of Sail). For all that I consider the latter two grossly under-used historical lenses (environmental history didn't (and couldn't) become a discipline of its own until the end of the Cold War), and for all I love trying to apply them to everything, they don't work for everything. For all I find the military history lens a bit boring ("Let's figure out the standard deviation in weight of coat buttons in Napoleonic Era buttons and figure out how that contributed to army calorie consumption, kids!"), I begrudgingly have to admit that sometimes it is necessary to apply it while studying history.
Begrudgingly.
There's nothing dishonest about having to use lenses. It's necessary. It's also, however, a value judgement, and it's seldom possible to easily select a specific lens or set of lenses as the correct one for any given situation.
The choice of what lenses an author selects during their worldbuilding process is absolutely a reflection on their values. People used to give me crap for constantly harping on about the impacts of plagues and epidemics on history, even to the degree of me claiming they were generally more important than wars in the pre-modern world. Just out of orneriness, I started referring to the "Disease Theory of History." (I kinda wish I, uh, hadn't gotten so much supporting evidence recently, though. It's an argument that, in retrospect, I would probably have been happier not winning.) My emphasis on the role of disease in history was a value judgement, and one disputed by quite a few other people.
When we're choosing our worldbuilding lenses, we're making an explicit value judgement about what we think matters about our history, and is worth projecting or changing in our new worlds. This is true on every level, and if you look close, you can probably spot a lot of your favorite authors' lenses. And they're not all historical lenses, either- there are also scientific lenses (geology for me!), philosophical lenses, cultural lenses, and more.
Heck, lenses can get super specific, too- figuring how a city gets its drinking water is one of the core parts of my worldbuilding process. If I can't make it sensibly work, I discard the city entirely. (In my most recent book, I designed a desert port city that was basically just an immense version of the Giant's Causeway with a city carved into it. I almost discarded it due to the drinking-water problem, until I realized that I had a second problem- the basalt would absorb a ridiculous amount of heat from the sun, making the city unbearably hot. The two problems combined actually solved each other- I gave the city enchantments that drained the excess heat from the columnar basalt, then used that heat to desalinate seawater.) Alternatively, textiles would be a great lens to examine worldbuilding from- they're important to literally every civilization ever, and an author can do fascinating things with their worldbuilding using textiles. It's not a lens I often use, but it's one I find fascinating, and love seeing other authors explore. (And you'd be absolutely shocked at the cultural, economic, and moral impacts of textiles on civilization, if you haven't studied them seriously before.)
And, of course, the different lenses you use will affect one another in fascinating, overlapping ways. Using both an epidemiological lens and a military history lens will offer you fascinating insights in the role of war in spreading disease, and into how disease has affected war throughout history (typhus did far more damage to Napoleon's Russian invasion than winter or Russian forces did), all of which you can use to shape your own worldbuilding.
Nature's Revenge:
We are not the masters of our own destiny we once thought we were. Before 2020, I think, this would have been a more controversial statement, but there is a growing realization that nature will still have her due, one way or another, and it's seldom a cheap tithe. When worldbuilding, or considering an author's worldbuilding, pay close to the relationship between civilization and nature in it. One of the most fascinating ways to comment on our own world and provoke thought about our relationship with it is by changing the relationship between man and nature in a fictional world.
Back Down to Earth
An author's worldbuilding choices matter on countless levels. As much as I love Shakespeare, the world is not simply a stage, but an actor in and of itself throughout our history. Us writers absolutely have a duty to be thoughtful about our worldbuilding as commentary on our world, while readers...
Well, I won't make any demands on what readers do or do not consider while reading. It's absolutely not my place to do so as an author. I'll encourage you to carefully consider what an author's worldbuilding has to say about our own world, however. (Also, you know, choosing to read- and choosing what to read- is absolutely a more private, personal decision than writing for the public is. If you're just reading to relax and are too frazzled to think, definitely no worries- we all need to do that every now and then! I definitely don't always practice the thoughtfulness I'm preaching.)
One of the most beloved aspects of science fiction and fantasy to me is that by making up stories about wizards and robots, dragons and spaceships, we can say things about our current world that we might not be able to say thoughtfully. Worldbuilding will never be as important to a novel as characters, prose, or plot, but we absolutely can't afford to take it for granted, either- it's still essential.
submitted by JohnBierce to Fantasy [link] [comments]


2020.08.21 21:56 OneWhoRemembers [Part 7] Fontainebleau Forest

[Part 1] can be found here, the previous entry here.
- - -
I didn't go to Fenley, not right away. I couldn't do it. My uncle's murder was one thing, Beryl Taggart's disappearance another, but I tortured myself trying to comprehend how my investigation could result in an event like the Princess Road Tragedy. The final death toll was 29 (including the driver) with a further 40 injured, most of which for life. I was not only weighed down by enormous guilt but paranoid and terrified the Pontem were no longer content to simply observe. They were out for blood and prepared to do anything to get it.
Ignoring my instincts to flee into the empty countryside I took Gregory's advice and remained in only the biggest cities. From the sale of my home and car I had more than enough to rent a couple of storage units and a small furnished flat in each of the cities I was bouncing between.
For weeks I did nothing. I hid indoors for the most part, and at the slightest provocation would disappear to another bolthole across the country. Locations I was convinced were compromised were cut out of the network never to be visited again. My paranoia now extended to more advanced methods of tracking, after all, what if the Pontem wielded real power in their communities? What if they could see my bank records for example, or track my phone? I had taken the sim card out right at the beginning of my self-imposed exile just in case. I paid in cash, making large withdrawals only when moving on to the next safehouse.
It was a dreary Thursday evening, cold and absolutely pissing it down with rain. I was sitting at the kitchen table reading 'Blood Music', one eye on the page, one on a crack in the blinds where I could see the street below. The lights were all off as they usually were with only the dim glow of a small book light clipped onto the worn cover.
I watched the third black car of the hour slowly pass by and let out a deep sigh. That was my rule; three in an hour was too big a risk. It was time to leave again.
I had my escape locked down already only this time with a twist. I grabbed my newly charged phone and slid the sim card home, planning to finally call Gregory and ask for his help or advice. Living like this was like treading water. I was dangerously bored and wanted to do something useful.
I found my phone quickly blowing up with old messages from the family asking me how I was and whether I was okay and then most recently if I was still planning on joining them on the annual holiday, this year to the town of Avon in northern France. The last thing I felt like doing was going on holiday, but maybe a trip abroad would give me a chance to recharge my batteries and more importantly throw the Pontem off the scent for a while.
First thing I did was call Gregory.
'Been a long time!' he said jovially.
'Aye it has,' I agreed before cutting right to the chase. 'I'm on the run.'
'Aren't we all brother.'
'You hear about Princess Road?'
'What, the crash?'
'Yeah, I was there. The driver was Pontem. He swerved into traffic to get to me.'
'...what?'
'I'm going abroad for a couple of weeks but when I get back I'm going to Fenley, and I want you to help me.'
'Of course.'
'Really?'
'Yeah I've got unfinished business there myself. Got some stuff to do first so a couple of weeks sounds great.'
'Alright, I'll be in touch then.'
'Take care.'
'And you.'
I messaged my family to confirm the date and inform them I would be arriving in Avon separately, then I removed the sim card from my phone, grabbed my pre-packed rucksack, and headed out the back door.
A few days later I arrived in Calais on a ferry from Amsterdam, caught the train to Paris and finally a coach down to the French commune of Avon. It was a small town, surrounded on all sides by the beautiful forest of Fontainebleau. I felt my chest opening up with the familiar smell of fresh, sweet country air I had craved and been avoiding for so long.
My parents, older sister and her children were waiting for me in a gorgeous little cafe overlooking a quaint paved sidestreet. They were pleased to see me in good health but I knew they could sense something was wrong.
Later we made our way to the cabin, built right on the western edge of town on a ridge overlooking a vast expanse of rustling green. Trees as far as the eye could see. It was glorious.
I unpacked and helped my sister set up the dining room for dinner. Nobody quizzed me on my whereabouts or my activities all evening, and I almost thought I had gotten away with it until my father pulled me aside just before turning in.
'You know what I'm gonna say,' he said warmly, a firm hand on my shoulder. 'We're worried about you son, are you feeling alright?'
'Of course,' I lied. 'I've just been feeling a bit down ever since, you know... Been taking some time out on my own, trying to slow down a little and, you know, assess I guess.'
'Are you sure you're not in trouble or anything?'
'I promise.'
'And everything's okay with your health; body, spirit and mind, yeah?'
'Absolutely, like I said, just taking some time to myself.'
'Alright son.' He tried to smile but could only manage a half-grimace that I knew meant he didn't believe me. 'Sleep tight our kid.'
He clapped me on the back like father's do and went off to bed.
I couldn't sleep well that night and found myself sitting outside on the patio with a big glass of scotch waiting for the sun to rise.
Staring into the utter black of the night forest gave no sense of scale or three-dimensionality. As soon as the edge of the sun began to peek out over the distant horizon and those first tendrils of navy and deep aquamarine seeped into the dark, some kind of animal bellowed out in the forest and I shuddered under my jacket.
The cry was indistinct, muffled with reverberation and distance but loud enough at its epicentre to clear every roosting bird for miles around. Huge murmurations of them froghopped across the treetops and coiled up into the ever brightening sky, and with them came an unearthly dreadladen choir of cawing that filled the region like a bloodclot.
I stood, ready to go inside and maybe catch another hour in bed when the glow of the sunrise filtered through the treeline to illuminate in warm orange something watching me. I stood rooted to the spot and could only stare wide-eyed as the tall pale figure drifted like smoke out of sight behind a tree.
I blinked furiously and rubbed my eyes, narrowing them for better focus and picking out no movement at all. The figure had vanished. Had it been there at all? I found it hard to believe that supernatural or otherwise the Pontem, mimicweed, or Wild Men of the Well could be here in France as well. It simply didn't make sense.
I went inside, lay in bed, and stared at the ceiling until my mother called me for breakfast.
I cleared my head over a coffee, some fruit and a couple of pastries and joined my sister and her kids on a jaunt into town for a little sightseeing and ice cream. Of course it didn't take long for everyone to grow a little bored of the commune, after all the real beauty was out in the forest.
That afternoon we all rented bicycles and followed a quiet country road out of the town and into the surrounding woods. I was convinced that tired and bugged out as I was I had fabricated the pallid figure in my imagination, at least that's what I told myself. I had to keep up appearances amongst the family to maintain the illusion that everything was fine.
'What made you choose to come to Fontainebleau?' I asked my parents as I matched speed and pulled in between them. 'I mean, it's lovely.'
'Oh your father has been talking about this place ever since your uncle was taken from us.'
'Oh?'
'Yes that's right isn't it Gerry?'
'That's right, your uncle he, uh.' He was panting between syllables as he struggled to pedal and talk at the same time. 'He was planning a trip out here himself. I thought it might be, uh, I don't know, a nice tribute.'
I swallowed hard, not really liking the sound of where this was going.
'Yeah that's nice. I'm sure he would've liked that.'
We eventually pulled off the single lane tarmacked road and onto a fenced dirt track just about wide enough to fit a car down. In my chest my heart was hammering in overdrive and it wasn't from overexertion. The hairs on the back of my neck were permanently stood on end.
I know it sounds crazy since trees have no 'front' as such, but it didn't matter if it was oak, beech or pine I felt as though every single one I passed was not only looking at me somehow but full on gawking. Was I losing it? Now wasn't the time, not in front of the family.
An hour or so later we pulled into a small rest stop, little more than a clearing with a few benches and a couple of portable toilets. There was nobody else around.
'Whew it's lovely!' my mother gushed as red-faced she sprawled out onto one of the benches. 'Gerry get the drinks and sandwiches out would you?'
The food was dry and cloying in my mouth but I managed to force some of it down. I smiled and laughed and made eye contact when I was talking to someone, and yet no matter which way I faced the crowd of trees leered in my peripheral vision.
'I wanna go down to the stream,' my nephew whined from where he stood at the treeline, pointing down the shallow slope beyond and looking at his mum. 'It's not far, can we go?'
'Not now sweetie,' my sister said without looking up from her sandwich. 'Some of us are still eating.'
'Uncle's not!'
My niece was up on her feet next to her brother now, and both had their attentions fixed firmly on me. I had indeed 'finished' my sandwich, swallowing a few bites and slipping the rest inside my jacket when nobody was looking.
'Do you mind?' my sister implored. 'They'll just keep wittering on otherwise and I'm actually feeling pretty chill right now.'
I patted her on the shoulder and gave it a quick squeeze.
'Sure no worries. Alright you two come on!'
I had no idea I was this good at acting, and here I was striding into the forest with a big grin on my face chuckling along to a pair of whooping kids. Every tree I passed I could feel its attention pivot in lockstep to my movements. I felt like I was wrapped up in a heavy woollen blanket; I wasn't too hot, but I felt somehow squashed in or hugged by the natural world around me. Cold sweat beaded on my neck and temples, my arms were streaked with goosebumps, my guts tensed hard enough that at times I wondered if I might shit myself. Is this how Callum Peterson felt when he travelled into the country?
The creek burbled away at the bottom of the slope only a dozen meters or so from the rest stop above and behind us. I perched myself on a flat rock and watched my niece and nephew racing sticks in the water for a while. The sound of the forest was eerily quiet, I couldn't hear any birds or insects, just the background static of wind rustling the treetops high above.
The sun was bright and golden, splitting up into dappled spots that shone and danced through the canopy for as far as the eye could see. That constant movement was triggering my hindbrain in rapid fire as my subconscious registered threats everywhere. I needed to get out of there.
'How you getting on kids?' I called to them in my best jolly uncle voice, and still it cracked a little.
The branches arched above my head peered down on me like a scientist into a petri dish.
My niece and nephew blathered unintelligibly about frogs and grasshoppers and who won the most stick races, and as I pretended to listen I spotted something between the trees maybe half a mile away.
Mimicweed. Two of them standing side by side in a small clearing. The sunlight licked over their shaggy shoulders and thick, elephantine paws. The sweaty fingers of my own right hand clutched the coin in my pocket so hard they ached.
'Come on you two, let's get back to your mum,' I said, eyes fixed on the frozen figures in the distance.
The kids groaned and booed at me but reluctantly complied. I frogmarched them up the slope, quickly losing my line of sight to the mimicweed and growing increasingly paranoid that they might now be moving towards me.
The kids ran off ahead giggling and teasing one another and soon disappeared over the crest of the slope. I turned my gaze to the creek and found the rock where I had been sitting.
About a meter behind it a Wild Man stood astride its steed, one mailed hand gripping the reigns, another resting upon the hilt of a broadsword at its belt. That great animal head was tilted up toward me. Its dead black eyes were fixed firmly on my own.
I couldn't believe what I was seeing; it was noticably different from the Wild Men of Fenley, standing taller and straighter with thick powerful arms and legs and dressed up to its neck in heavy rusted armour. The steed was similarly different from the descriptions I had heard; it had a saddle and reigns and the human head was wrapped in a thick metal collar that covered everything but its balding wrinkled scalp and a pair of hollow, puckered eyes.
I turned and bolted, making it back to the rest stop in time to see my family shouldering their backpacks ready to leave.
'Ah there you are!' my mother beamed. 'You ready to head out?'
Back at the cabin that evening I finally managed to catch a few hours of sleep after dinner, waking up as the others were on their way to bed. I crept into the living room, poured myself a scotch, and huddled out on the patio staring into the forest just as I had the night before.
What the hell were Wild Men and mimicweed doing out here more than 800 miles away across the Channel? Were they following me somehow or were they already here? Were they everywhere?
I figured I would be spending the rest of the holiday trying to keep ahead of the creatures in the woods whilst acting like nothing was happening around the rest of the family. It didn't sound like much fun, in fact it sounded dangerous. What would happen if that great stag-headed warrior managed to get hold of me? Sword or no sword it looked strong enough to rip my head clean off.
I was thinking of leaving, making some lame excuse to my family and moving forward with mine and Gregory's plan to visit Fenley. I was surprised to see lights flashing on the grassy verge between our holiday cabin and the treeline.
Lanterns? No, too bright, too uniform, moving too quickly. It was the headlights of a big car, a dark green jeep-type vehicle with huge studded wheels and a small flatbed covered in a roll cage and some webs of camouflage netting. Park rangers of some kind? It was getting closer, in fact they were heading right for me.
It had to be the Pontem.
I ran into the house aiming for the front door, on the way grabbing my jacket and the biggest knife in the kitchen. As I burst into the front yard I almost knocked my sister down the steps where she was smoking a cigarette.
'Jesus Christ you scared the shit outta me. You going somewhere?'
'There's a car behind the cabin. They're coming for me.'
'That's a pretty big knife, wanna put it down for me?'
'You don't understand Kim. I'm not crazy, just stay away from... stay away from everything. The less you see the safer you'll be.'
'You should listen to your sister Thompson,' said a voice from the end of the driveway.
I spun around and pointed the tip of the knife at the shape as it stepped out of the shadows and into the light.
'Who the fuck are you?'
He was tall and broad-shouldered, dressed in an old style pinstripe suit, a jade-coloured tie and black shoes so polished they shone like mirrors. His hands were in black leather gloves, his arms and shoulders in a long grey overcoat that almost reached the ground. His head was covered in a large, slightly peaked hood but I could see the face beneath it; pale, grey-bearded, eyes ensconced behind a pair of opaque dark-lensed goggles.
In one gloved hand he carried a black briefcase, in the other he brandished a familiar wooden wand.
'You know who I am. That's why we're here.'
'Go inside Kim,' I said sternly without looking around. 'Go to bed and never speak to anyone about what happened out here.'
'I'm calling the police.' She bolted inside the house before I could protest.
'You should have backed away when your friends were telling you to. Now we have to erase your sister as well. It's good the whole family is here, you made it easy for me.'
I rushed him and he dodged to one side like a matador. I skidded into the street, pivoted around and slashed out with the knife in a wide arc towards his head. He leaned away and the blade swung through empty air. Before I could regain composure and lunge again I felt the tip of the wand touch my chest. It was icy cold. I felt a crackle of something like electricity.
'Disappear,' said the man.
I stumbled backwards, limbs feeling leaden and heavy all of a sudden. I landed on my backside in the middle of the street and stared blearily up the empty road ahead. Lights again, not lanterns, no, headlights...
A large black car pulled around the corner and crawled silently up behind the man-with-the-wand. A door opened but nobody got out.
The man-with-the-wand tucked it away inside his overcoat then bent down and lay the briefcase onto the tarmac. He unlocked it, popped it open, and pulled out a pair of handcuffs and a sack hood.
I knew where this was going.
Somehow my arms and legs were working and I managed to crabwalk far enough away to feel comfortable twisting onto all fours and up onto my feet. He closed the gap frighteningly quickly but I was ready, lunging into him instead of away and lashing out hard with the point of the knife.
I felt contact, felt it sink deep into gristly resistance, felt hot warmth flood over my hands and forearms. My attacker hissed and recoiled away with my knife still buried in his gut. Behind him two men dressed identically save for the colour of their ties (canary yellow and fiery orange) stepped out of the car, and they weren't carrying wands.
The man-in-the-yellow tie carried a semi-automatic handgun in one hand and a long, heavy machete-like knife in the other. The man-in-the-orange-tie carried a shotgun and not a farmer's variant; it was a sleek, blunt-nosed black thing, the kind a SWAT team might use.
I looked around desperately at the surrounding houses and cabins. It was late, the only light coming from streetlamps. All was quiet too, even the black car. I figured one of the guns going off may rouse the neighbours by which point it would be too late for me.
I tried to run and managed three or four steps before a second vehicle came screeching around the corner ahead. It was the jeep, and it barrelled right at me faster than I could hope to dodge or outpace. Blinded by the highbeams I froze, lifting my arms across my face in futile self-preservation and bracing for an impact that never came.
The vehicle sped past me with only inches to spare and slammed into the man-in-the-green-tie, who bounced hard off the bumper and skipped like a stone up the road ahead. It didn't even slow down, instead veering sharply to the right and dragging the man-in-the-yellow-tie under its massive front wheels before sliding left once more and finally skidding to a halt atop both corpses.
The man-in-the-orange tie discharged his shotgun across the body of the jeep once, twice, before a figure leapt down from the roll cage and skewered him through the midriff with a short silvery sword.
I just stood there in silence as the third and final Pontem agent lifelessly crumpled up on the spot. Lights were starting coming on in the surrounding buildings now.
'Hey, you!' the figure called out to me as he plunged his sword in and out a few more times for good measure. He was wearing a strange hat and uniform I couldn't quite make out. 'Come here. Help me.'
I stumbled over, numbed with shock by the speed at which everything had changed. A second figure (the driver) had exited the vehicle too and was already pulling one of the bodies out from where it lay twisted between the wheels.
I could scarcely believe my eyes; both men were dressed as Roman soldiers.
The driver was in a full set of armour including a helmet with a red fur crest, greaves, a scale breastplate, and even a pair of heavy boot-like sandals. His passenger wore a breastplate and helmet over a grey jacket and forest camo cargopants. It was a strange combination but now wasn't the time for questions. Together we slung the three dead men and their weapons into the back of the jeep.
'Here,' said the driver as he fished a set of keys from one of the bodies and tossed them at me. 'You can drive right? Julien will guide you to the right spot.'
'Uh, yeah I can drive.' I looked over at the black Pontem car, three of its doors still hanging wide open.
'Take this too.' He took off his helmet to reveal a tanned bald scalp, and I immediately recognised him. 'It'll protect you.'
The polished steel felt cool under my fingertips as I slipped it over my head.
'Uhh, thanks.'
Before I could say another word he hopped back into the the jeep and sped off, leaving his passenger and I standing in the middle of an otherwise empty street.
'Alright partner, let's get out of here before the police show up.'
'That man...' I said as I slid into the warm leather seat, inserted the key and thumbed the ignition. 'I've seen him before, out in rural Wales. I led In Via to a Pontem apostate and the historian he was hiding with, by mistake of course. He helped them get away.'
'Yeah that's what he does. Why do you think we're here? Come on, drive a little faster. Second on the left. Yeah-yeah, that one.'
I gulped as I followed his directions off the main road and down a country lane leading out into the forest.
'You sure this is a good idea?'
'Trust me, you'll be alright with that helmet on.'
'What do you mean? What does it do?'
'Aside from scare the shit out Wild Men and mimicweed? There's a thin band of basalt set around the inside. You'll be almost invisible.'
'To the Pontem?'
'Shit no, to the Lignumsphaera. You'll need this for the Pontem.' He handed me the man-in-the-yellow-tie's handgun with a grin on his boyish face. 'Be careful with that. Only got the one clip.'
Romans? Basalt? Lignumsphaera?
'I don't-'
'Relax man!' the half-Roman soothed. 'Let's get some music on. I guess you've got a lot of questions and we haven't got much time, so fire away.'
I took a deep breath and stared out into the black ahead, entombed on all sides by thick looming arches and arms of forest. Julien fiddled with the radio and found a crackly local station playing French jazz.
'Who are you?' I began.
'Julien Baker.'
'Why do I know that name?'
'I spoke to our mutual pal Gregory. I believe he showed you my article on the Wild Men of Fenley.'
'So you're the journalist? My uncle's journal told me you disappeared soon after publication.'
'Yeah, well, there's a story there alright.'
'And who's the other guy?'
'Calls himself Alphons. He belongs to some ancient society, he's cagey about who exactly but I think he's a recruiter-slash-fixer for them. All this Roman gear is his.'
'The man, the one with the green tie, he touched me with his wand.'
'They call 'em causality wands, and I don't think that's good news.'
'He said “disappear” as he did it. The same thing almost happened to me on Princess Road. What does it mean?'
Julien shrugged.
'I don't know quite as much as my outfit suggests. I doubt even Alphons knows. I haven't heard or seen anything about anyone getting zapped myself, but you're feeling alright yeah?'
'Dizzy when it touched me, but that cleared fast enough. I feel fine.'
'Good. We'll ask Alphons when we finds us.'
'Where are we going?'
Julien chuckled and raised his eyebrows.
'We've got ourselves a mission, the three of us.'
'What kind of mission?'
'Well.' Julien unsheathed his sword halfway and stared into his shining reflection. 'That remains to be seen.'
submitted by OneWhoRemembers to nosleep [link] [comments]


2020.08.03 00:26 BakaSandwich Did An Ancient Advanced Civilization Exist on Earth? (big read) by u/CuteBananaMuffin

Did An Ancient Advanced Civilization Exist on Earth?
by Philip Coppens
February 2008
from PhilipCoppens Website
Spanish version
Are the Indian remains of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, their sudden abandonment and the apparent discovery of an ancient site with a layer of radioactive ash the best available evidence for the possibility that our ancient ancestors possessed a highly advanced technology - which might have included atomic warfare?

Did an ancient advanced - if not extra-terrestrial - civilization exist on Earth?
The question is very intriguing and despite the academic ridicule that has been bestowed on the likes of Erich von Däniken and Zecharia Sitchin, the idea has caught the world’s imagination, with the help of Hollywood and shows such as Stargate SG-1.
But apart from a battle for our hearts, there is also a battle for our minds: is there evidence that ET visited and lived here, millennia ago?
Many possible scenarios and theories have been put forward, from statements that Atlantis was a high tech civilization, leaving us an as yet undiscovered Hall of Records and the pyramid complex at Gizeh, to the possibility that the Nazca lines might be a prehistoric airport.
In 2007, the latter was voted as one of the Fortean Wonders of the World. Nazca’s popularity is almost singularly due to Erich von Däniken, whose approach in his quest for serious consideration of the “ET question” has been to point out various anomalies, resulting in a pool of evidence that is then queried as to whether together, this could - should - be seen as evidence of either an alien or a highly technologically advanced civilization.
What his approach has revealed, is that science in the 1960s thought it had all the answers, but largely had to perform much additional research. Today, this has meant that some of the sites, such as Nazca, have received a more proper scientific study.
In a larger context, von Däniken’s “body of evidence” has also enabled easier acceptance of sites such as Caral, which truly have made the “New World” as “Old” - if not older - revealing many parallels between the two continents. To some extent, von Däniken has fought “their battle”, eased the scientific acceptance of Caral and like.
It is therefore clear that von Däniken has had an impact on archaeology, but, equally, since first airing the question whether or not we have alien ancestors, the answer has remained a negative: there is, four decades later, no hard evidence ET landed on Earth.
Another popular ancient astronaut author is Zecharia Sitchin, who, in origin, decided to focus on a more specific area, the Sumerian civilization, and analyzed every detail of its myths and history, claiming the devil was in the detail:
that hidden inside these myths, when properly translated and explained, was clear evidence of an alien component of this civilization, which he then set out to write down in a series of books, The Earth Chronicles, beginning with The Twelfth Planet in 1976.
Like von Däniken, Sitchin’s work has been popular, but unlike von Däniken, Sitchin has definitely failed in making any impact on the scientific community - though he has made a major contribution to the “conspiracy theories” out there, who see some of the wars fought in the Middle East as having a “clear” alien component.
That Sitchin’s work had this result is remarkable, as his approach might seem to be more scientific - and perhaps better:
he focused on the quest for the “best evidence”, a single piece of evidence that in itself is the best example to support a conclusion.
The term is used in court, and is the so-called “smoking gun”:
in presenting your case for the jury, what single piece of evidence would convince that jury that a person is guilty of the allegation?
So, even though Sitchin has failed, in the search for an advanced ancient civilization, what would be this “best evidence” that could convince the jury ET dropped by, many millennia ago?
First, we need to assume that ET somehow will have left physical traces of his presence, and that this trace has withstood the test of time. A spaceship landing off the shores of some country, ET walking on the beach and speaking with the local inhabitants, will have left no physical trace, except, perhaps, an oral or written tradition of “some ancestor” conversing with “a being” on the shore “a long time ago”.
We should hope this being left some gift with the ancestors, and that they carefully preserved it, and that this gift can be shown to be of alien origin. But this is not a given.
The “best evidence” therefore needs to be long-lasting, and a clear sign of an advanced civilization; the so-called “oop-arts” (out of place artifacts) such as the Antikythera machine, the Phaistos Disc, etc., are all in themselves not evidence of an advanced extra-terrestrial civilization, but “merely” evidence that some of our ancestors, or entire civilizations, were far more clever than academics were willing to grant them.
Though von Däniken has made tremendous impact here, it is, as mentioned, not part of the real battle he wants to win.
Within our current mindset, detailed changes to the DNA molecular structure could be seen as evidence of a highly advanced manipulation, outside the scope of any of our earthly ancestors.
Indeed, Sitchin has looked towards such genetic manipulations and claims to have “read” such accounts in the Sumerian myths; others who have read the same accounts nevertheless remain unconvinced. However, at present, our understanding of the gene pool does not allow us to even begin to look where we could find evidence inside that gene pool whether ET intervened in it or not.
One of the other “best candidates” for best evidence is the conquest of the atom-nuclear warfare, which according to Sitchin is precisely what occurred in the Middle East in the third millennium BC. In support for this conclusion, he has consistently relied upon photographs of the Sinai Peninsula, taken from space. They purportedly show an immense cavity and crack in its surface, showing us where the nuclear explosion has taken place.
He adds that the area is strewn with crushed, burnt and blackened rocks, which contain a highly unusual ratio of isotope uranium-235,
“indicating in expert opinions exposure to sudden immense heat of nuclear origin”, to quote Sitchin.
Alas, Sitchin provides no further detail who these experts are, or where they have expressed such opinions, thus weakening his own case for what would otherwise be very good evidence.
In recent publications, Sitchin has also argued that the “Climate Change and the Collapse of the Akkadian Empire - Evidence from the Deep Sea” article, which was published in the April 2000 issue of “Geology”, is confirmation of his claim.
The essay argues that an unusual climate change occurred in the areas adjoining the Dead Sea, which gave rise to dust storms and that the dust - an unusual “atmospheric mineral dust” - was carried by the prevailing winds over the Persian Gulf.
According to Sitchin, this was due to an,
“uncommon dramatic event that occurred near 4025 years before the present”, or ca. 2025 BC.
He adds that the Dead Sea level fell abruptly by 100 meters at the time, underlining that something truly catastrophic did happen.
Alas, consultation of the report itself reveals that Sitchin has been more than “selective” in his summary of this report. Though the reports states a catastrophe occurred, the report clearly reveals that the likely cause of this climate change was a volcanic eruption - not a nuclear explosion. Though the report is unable to identify which volcano was responsible for this sudden climate shift, the report clearly correlates the presence of volcanic ash with the ensuing disasters.
In short, it is not evidence of a nuclear explosion at all; it is evidence of a so far unidentified volcanic eruption. As there are references to “volcanic ash” in the abstract and summary of the report, the question should be asked why Sitchin failed to see this.
The problematic verification of Sitchin’s claim is not a new allegation and is a known problem for his theories. Furthermore, despite decades of searching, he seems to have been unable to find supporting evidence that the Sinai Peninsula is indeed strewn with nuclear debris.
This does not invalidate his theory as such, but has stopped him - and “the ancient astronaut cause” in general - to advance. Indeed, his often-maligned unscientific methodology of writing has been seen by some as hurting, more than advancing, that cause.
Another candidate for a nuclear explosion, so far left untouched by most of the “ancient astronaut proponents”, is the Indus River Valley, where towns such as Harappa and Mohenjo Daro flourished in 3000 BC, but were then quickly abandoned. One answer that has been put forward is that the ancient cities might have been irradiated by an atomic blast.
If true, it would be impossible to ignore the conclusion that ancient civilization possessed high technology.
The ruins of Harappa What this candidate has in its favor is that a layer of radioactive ash was indeed found in Rajasthan, India.
It covered a three-square mile area, ten miles west of Jodhpur. The research occurred after a very high rate of birth defects and cancer was discovered in the area. The levels of radiation registered so high on investigators’ gauges that the Indian government cordoned off the region.
Scientists then apparently unearthed an ancient city where they found evidence of an atomic blast dating back thousands of years: from 8,000 to 12,000 years. The blast was said to have destroyed most of the buildings and probably a half-million people. So far, this story seems to have all the necessary credentials.
Archaeologist Francis Taylor stated that etchings in some nearby temples he translated, suggested that they prayed to be spared from the great light that was coming to lay ruin to the city.
“It’s so mind-boggling to imagine that some civilization had nuclear technology before we did. The radioactive ash adds credibility to the ancient Indian records that describe atomic warfare.”
Furthermore, when excavations of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro reached the street level, they discovered skeletons scattered about the cities, many holding hands and sprawling in the streets as if some instant, horrible doom had killed its inhabitants.
People were just lying, unburied, in the streets of the city; there seemed no-one available to bury them afterwards.
What could cause such a thing? Why did the bodies not decay or get eaten by wild animals?
Furthermore, there is no apparent cause of a physically violent death. Furthermore, Alexander Gorbovsky, in “Riddles of Ancient History” (1966, Soviet Publishers, Moscow), reported the discovery of at least one human skeleton in this area with a level of radioactivity approximately fifty times greater than it should have been due to natural radiation.
Furthermore, thousands of fused lumps, christened “black stones”, have been found at Mohenjo Daro. These appear to be fragments of clay vessels that melted together in extreme heat.
Another curious sign of an ancient nuclear war in India is a giant crater near Mumbai (formerly Bombay).
The nearly circular 2,154-meter-diameter Lonar crater (below image), located 400 kilometers northeast of Mumbai and dated at less than 50,000 years old, could be related to nuclear warfare of antiquity.

https://preview.redd.it/i7uzoewfcme51.jpg?width=499&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e1ec352536b23cb1403c9c6285ba2c56c1c2287d
No trace of any meteoric material, etc., has been found at the site or in the vicinity, and this is the world’s only known “impact” crater in basalt.
Indications of great shock (from a pressure exceeding 600,000 atmospheres) and intense, abrupt heat (indicated by basalt glass spherules) can be ascertained from the site.
With the apparent discovery of this radiated area, parallels were quickly drawn to the Mahabharata, the Indian epic, which indeed speak of doom and destruction.
It reads:
... (it was) a single projectile Charged with all the power of the Universe. An incandescent column of smoke and flame As bright as the thousand suns Rose in all its splendor... ...it was an unknown weapon, An iron thunderbolt, A gigantic messenger of death, Which reduced to ashes The entire race of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas. ...The corpses were so burned As to be unrecognizable. The hair and nails fell out; Pottery broke without apparent cause, And the birds turned white. After a few hours All foodstuffs were infected... ....to escape from this fire The soldiers threw themselves in streams To wash themselves and their equipment.
Whereas the story of the Mahabharata is indirect evidence, the archaeological discoveries in India pose serious problems for those trying to deny the possibility that this might indeed be evidence of ancient atomic warfare.
Whereas believing in the existence of Atlantis or a highly advanced civilization that might not have left any trace is one thing, to suggest that our ancestors might have wiped themselves out along the same lines we were in fear of accomplishing during the latter half of the 20th century is a major paradigm shift.
Is this the best evidence?
One skeptic stated:
“I am sick and tired of hearing this [the possibility of an atomic explosion in India], and I cannot find any debunks of this either. Anyone who can debunk this, or is this really true?”
That is indeed the question… and an important one.
The stakes are high, as one would expect when facing the best evidence.
Lonar crater So, let us examine what might be the best evidence.
The first question is whether the named archaeologist Francis Taylor existed. Alas, no-one has ever been able to identify him. There is a Francis Taylor, an American museum director, who died in 1957. He was, however, not an archaeologist. There is a “Francisco Taylor”, but he is not the above quoted Francis Taylor.
Hence, not a good start.
Skeptics have also wondered whether the ancient atomic warfare is not a modern invention, to deflect attention away from a serious - modern - atomic contamination. In 1998, it was reported that some Indian power stations had major problems. One had an incident in which 2000 workers became exposed to excess radiation, 300 of which had to be hospitalized.
Surendra Gadekar investigated the conditions of villagers at Rawatbhatta in Rajasthan and confirmed there were indeed gross radiation-related deformities. We note that Rawatbhatta is in the same region as the discovery of the “ancient warfare” site.
But Gadekar did not find evidence of ancient warfare, but did find evidence of modern negligence:
wood that had been used in the power plant, had then “somehow” made its way into the local community, where it was subsequently used as wood for a fire.
This in itself was a minor incident, but could there have been more serious incidents, whereby a decision was made to create an “ancient enigma”?
Though a possibility, there is no evidence to back up this conclusion at present.
Regrettably, we also find that there are no newspapers that carried the story of the discovery. The Indian archaeological authorities are not aware of the story. And as there is a government laboratory in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, the question is whether something might have gone wrong there.
With the above objections, the case for the best evidence has become more controversial than a straightforward case. Still, it is clear that the counterarguments have not demolished the potential of this evidence.
Alas, in this case, neither side of the debate has truly embraced trying to prove or disprove the allegations. Indeed, it is remarkable that this has not happened, noting the potential that resides within it, as well as the multi-disciplinary approach that this cause allows.
Are the proponents of the case unwilling to stake their “reputation” on it? Perhaps. But even if they were to fail, Rome was not built in one day, and arguing for or against the case of an ancient highly advanced civilization will not take any less time.
Until the subject is seriously tackled, the bodies of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro remain a mystery, whether or not the Indian radioactive site turns out to be modern or ancient, it is, at least, an uncontested fact that the site was radioactive. The anomalous crater adds power to the possibility and so does other circumstantial evidence.
Finally, the fact that all these enigmas are within one general region (as opposed to scattered across the world) adds even further weight to the case… but then this should be expected if we were to consider this case to be the best evidence.
The problem of the “best evidence” is often that it sounds too good to be true. That is either because it is, or because it is indeed the “best evidence”.
And only careful analysis of the evidence will reveal what is what.
Post by u/CuteBananaMuffin
submitted by BakaSandwich to outsideofthebox [link] [comments]


2020.08.02 18:49 CuteBananaMuffin Did An Ancient Advanced Civilization Exist on Earth? (big read)

Did An Ancient Advanced Civilization Exist on Earth? (big read)
by Philip Coppens
February 2008
from PhilipCoppens Website
Spanish version
Are the Indian remains of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, their sudden abandonment and the apparent discovery of an ancient site with a layer of radioactive ash the best available evidence for the possibility that our ancient ancestors possessed a highly advanced technology - which might have included atomic warfare?

Did an ancient advanced - if not extra-terrestrial - civilization exist on Earth?
The question is very intriguing and despite the academic ridicule that has been bestowed on the likes of Erich von Däniken and Zecharia Sitchin, the idea has caught the world’s imagination, with the help of Hollywood and shows such as Stargate SG-1.
But apart from a battle for our hearts, there is also a battle for our minds: is there evidence that ET visited and lived here, millennia ago?
Many possible scenarios and theories have been put forward, from statements that Atlantis was a high tech civilization, leaving us an as yet undiscovered Hall of Records and the pyramid complex at Gizeh, to the possibility that the Nazca lines might be a prehistoric airport.
In 2007, the latter was voted as one of the Fortean Wonders of the World. Nazca’s popularity is almost singularly due to Erich von Däniken, whose approach in his quest for serious consideration of the “ET question” has been to point out various anomalies, resulting in a pool of evidence that is then queried as to whether together, this could - should - be seen as evidence of either an alien or a highly technologically advanced civilization.
What his approach has revealed, is that science in the 1960s thought it had all the answers, but largely had to perform much additional research. Today, this has meant that some of the sites, such as Nazca, have received a more proper scientific study.
In a larger context, von Däniken’s “body of evidence” has also enabled easier acceptance of sites such as Caral, which truly have made the “New World” as “Old” - if not older - revealing many parallels between the two continents. To some extent, von Däniken has fought “their battle”, eased the scientific acceptance of Caral and like.
It is therefore clear that von Däniken has had an impact on archaeology, but, equally, since first airing the question whether or not we have alien ancestors, the answer has remained a negative: there is, four decades later, no hard evidence ET landed on Earth.
Another popular ancient astronaut author is Zecharia Sitchin, who, in origin, decided to focus on a more specific area, the Sumerian civilization, and analyzed every detail of its myths and history, claiming the devil was in the detail:
that hidden inside these myths, when properly translated and explained, was clear evidence of an alien component of this civilization, which he then set out to write down in a series of books, The Earth Chronicles, beginning with The Twelfth Planet in 1976.
Like von Däniken, Sitchin’s work has been popular, but unlike von Däniken, Sitchin has definitely failed in making any impact on the scientific community - though he has made a major contribution to the “conspiracy theories” out there, who see some of the wars fought in the Middle East as having a “clear” alien component.
That Sitchin’s work had this result is remarkable, as his approach might seem to be more scientific - and perhaps better:
he focused on the quest for the “best evidence”, a single piece of evidence that in itself is the best example to support a conclusion.
The term is used in court, and is the so-called “smoking gun”:
in presenting your case for the jury, what single piece of evidence would convince that jury that a person is guilty of the allegation?
So, even though Sitchin has failed, in the search for an advanced ancient civilization, what would be this “best evidence” that could convince the jury ET dropped by, many millennia ago?
First, we need to assume that ET somehow will have left physical traces of his presence, and that this trace has withstood the test of time. A spaceship landing off the shores of some country, ET walking on the beach and speaking with the local inhabitants, will have left no physical trace, except, perhaps, an oral or written tradition of “some ancestor” conversing with “a being” on the shore “a long time ago”.
We should hope this being left some gift with the ancestors, and that they carefully preserved it, and that this gift can be shown to be of alien origin. But this is not a given.
The “best evidence” therefore needs to be long-lasting, and a clear sign of an advanced civilization; the so-called “oop-arts” (out of place artifacts) such as the Antikythera machine, the Phaistos Disc, etc., are all in themselves not evidence of an advanced extra-terrestrial civilization, but “merely” evidence that some of our ancestors, or entire civilizations, were far more clever than academics were willing to grant them.
Though von Däniken has made tremendous impact here, it is, as mentioned, not part of the real battle he wants to win.
Within our current mindset, detailed changes to the DNA molecular structure could be seen as evidence of a highly advanced manipulation, outside the scope of any of our earthly ancestors.
Indeed, Sitchin has looked towards such genetic manipulations and claims to have “read” such accounts in the Sumerian myths; others who have read the same accounts nevertheless remain unconvinced. However, at present, our understanding of the gene pool does not allow us to even begin to look where we could find evidence inside that gene pool whether ET intervened in it or not.
One of the other “best candidates” for best evidence is the conquest of the atom-nuclear warfare, which according to Sitchin is precisely what occurred in the Middle East in the third millennium BC. In support for this conclusion, he has consistently relied upon photographs of the Sinai Peninsula, taken from space. They purportedly show an immense cavity and crack in its surface, showing us where the nuclear explosion has taken place.
He adds that the area is strewn with crushed, burnt and blackened rocks, which contain a highly unusual ratio of isotope uranium-235,
“indicating in expert opinions exposure to sudden immense heat of nuclear origin”, to quote Sitchin.
Alas, Sitchin provides no further detail who these experts are, or where they have expressed such opinions, thus weakening his own case for what would otherwise be very good evidence.
In recent publications, Sitchin has also argued that the “Climate Change and the Collapse of the Akkadian Empire - Evidence from the Deep Sea” article, which was published in the April 2000 issue of “Geology”, is confirmation of his claim.
The essay argues that an unusual climate change occurred in the areas adjoining the Dead Sea, which gave rise to dust storms and that the dust - an unusual “atmospheric mineral dust” - was carried by the prevailing winds over the Persian Gulf.
According to Sitchin, this was due to an,
“uncommon dramatic event that occurred near 4025 years before the present”, or ca. 2025 BC.
He adds that the Dead Sea level fell abruptly by 100 meters at the time, underlining that something truly catastrophic did happen.
Alas, consultation of the report itself reveals that Sitchin has been more than “selective” in his summary of this report. Though the reports states a catastrophe occurred, the report clearly reveals that the likely cause of this climate change was a volcanic eruption - not a nuclear explosion. Though the report is unable to identify which volcano was responsible for this sudden climate shift, the report clearly correlates the presence of volcanic ash with the ensuing disasters.
In short, it is not evidence of a nuclear explosion at all; it is evidence of a so far unidentified volcanic eruption. As there are references to “volcanic ash” in the abstract and summary of the report, the question should be asked why Sitchin failed to see this.
The problematic verification of Sitchin’s claim is not a new allegation and is a known problem for his theories. Furthermore, despite decades of searching, he seems to have been unable to find supporting evidence that the Sinai Peninsula is indeed strewn with nuclear debris.
This does not invalidate his theory as such, but has stopped him - and “the ancient astronaut cause” in general - to advance. Indeed, his often-maligned unscientific methodology of writing has been seen by some as hurting, more than advancing, that cause.
Another candidate for a nuclear explosion, so far left untouched by most of the “ancient astronaut proponents”, is the Indus River Valley, where towns such as Harappa and Mohenjo Daro flourished in 3000 BC, but were then quickly abandoned. One answer that has been put forward is that the ancient cities might have been irradiated by an atomic blast.
If true, it would be impossible to ignore the conclusion that ancient civilization possessed high technology.
The ruins of Harappa What this candidate has in its favor is that a layer of radioactive ash was indeed found in Rajasthan, India.
It covered a three-square mile area, ten miles west of Jodhpur. The research occurred after a very high rate of birth defects and cancer was discovered in the area. The levels of radiation registered so high on investigators’ gauges that the Indian government cordoned off the region.
Scientists then apparently unearthed an ancient city where they found evidence of an atomic blast dating back thousands of years: from 8,000 to 12,000 years. The blast was said to have destroyed most of the buildings and probably a half-million people. So far, this story seems to have all the necessary credentials.
Archaeologist Francis Taylor stated that etchings in some nearby temples he translated, suggested that they prayed to be spared from the great light that was coming to lay ruin to the city.
“It’s so mind-boggling to imagine that some civilization had nuclear technology before we did. The radioactive ash adds credibility to the ancient Indian records that describe atomic warfare.”
Furthermore, when excavations of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro reached the street level, they discovered skeletons scattered about the cities, many holding hands and sprawling in the streets as if some instant, horrible doom had killed its inhabitants.
People were just lying, unburied, in the streets of the city; there seemed no-one available to bury them afterwards.
What could cause such a thing? Why did the bodies not decay or get eaten by wild animals?
Furthermore, there is no apparent cause of a physically violent death. Furthermore, Alexander Gorbovsky, in “Riddles of Ancient History” (1966, Soviet Publishers, Moscow), reported the discovery of at least one human skeleton in this area with a level of radioactivity approximately fifty times greater than it should have been due to natural radiation.
Furthermore, thousands of fused lumps, christened “black stones”, have been found at Mohenjo Daro. These appear to be fragments of clay vessels that melted together in extreme heat.
Another curious sign of an ancient nuclear war in India is a giant crater near Mumbai (formerly Bombay).
The nearly circular 2,154-meter-diameter Lonar crater (below image), located 400 kilometers northeast of Mumbai and dated at less than 50,000 years old, could be related to nuclear warfare of antiquity.

https://preview.redd.it/i7uzoewfcme51.jpg?width=499&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e1ec352536b23cb1403c9c6285ba2c56c1c2287d
No trace of any meteoric material, etc., has been found at the site or in the vicinity, and this is the world’s only known “impact” crater in basalt.
Indications of great shock (from a pressure exceeding 600,000 atmospheres) and intense, abrupt heat (indicated by basalt glass spherules) can be ascertained from the site.
With the apparent discovery of this radiated area, parallels were quickly drawn to the Mahabharata, the Indian epic, which indeed speak of doom and destruction.
It reads:
... (it was) a single projectile Charged with all the power of the Universe. An incandescent column of smoke and flame As bright as the thousand suns Rose in all its splendor... ...it was an unknown weapon, An iron thunderbolt, A gigantic messenger of death, Which reduced to ashes The entire race of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas. ...The corpses were so burned As to be unrecognizable. The hair and nails fell out; Pottery broke without apparent cause, And the birds turned white. After a few hours All foodstuffs were infected... ....to escape from this fire The soldiers threw themselves in streams To wash themselves and their equipment.
Whereas the story of the Mahabharata is indirect evidence, the archaeological discoveries in India pose serious problems for those trying to deny the possibility that this might indeed be evidence of ancient atomic warfare.
Whereas believing in the existence of Atlantis or a highly advanced civilization that might not have left any trace is one thing, to suggest that our ancestors might have wiped themselves out along the same lines we were in fear of accomplishing during the latter half of the 20th century is a major paradigm shift.
Is this the best evidence?
One skeptic stated:
“I am sick and tired of hearing this [the possibility of an atomic explosion in India], and I cannot find any debunks of this either. Anyone who can debunk this, or is this really true?”
That is indeed the question… and an important one.
The stakes are high, as one would expect when facing the best evidence.
Lonar crater So, let us examine what might be the best evidence.
The first question is whether the named archaeologist Francis Taylor existed. Alas, no-one has ever been able to identify him. There is a Francis Taylor, an American museum director, who died in 1957. He was, however, not an archaeologist. There is a “Francisco Taylor”, but he is not the above quoted Francis Taylor.
Hence, not a good start.
Skeptics have also wondered whether the ancient atomic warfare is not a modern invention, to deflect attention away from a serious - modern - atomic contamination. In 1998, it was reported that some Indian power stations had major problems. One had an incident in which 2000 workers became exposed to excess radiation, 300 of which had to be hospitalized.
Surendra Gadekar investigated the conditions of villagers at Rawatbhatta in Rajasthan and confirmed there were indeed gross radiation-related deformities. We note that Rawatbhatta is in the same region as the discovery of the “ancient warfare” site.
But Gadekar did not find evidence of ancient warfare, but did find evidence of modern negligence:
wood that had been used in the power plant, had then “somehow” made its way into the local community, where it was subsequently used as wood for a fire.
This in itself was a minor incident, but could there have been more serious incidents, whereby a decision was made to create an “ancient enigma”?
Though a possibility, there is no evidence to back up this conclusion at present.
Regrettably, we also find that there are no newspapers that carried the story of the discovery. The Indian archaeological authorities are not aware of the story. And as there is a government laboratory in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, the question is whether something might have gone wrong there.
With the above objections, the case for the best evidence has become more controversial than a straightforward case. Still, it is clear that the counterarguments have not demolished the potential of this evidence.
Alas, in this case, neither side of the debate has truly embraced trying to prove or disprove the allegations. Indeed, it is remarkable that this has not happened, noting the potential that resides within it, as well as the multi-disciplinary approach that this cause allows.
Are the proponents of the case unwilling to stake their “reputation” on it? Perhaps. But even if they were to fail, Rome was not built in one day, and arguing for or against the case of an ancient highly advanced civilization will not take any less time.
Until the subject is seriously tackled, the bodies of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro remain a mystery, whether or not the Indian radioactive site turns out to be modern or ancient, it is, at least, an uncontested fact that the site was radioactive. The anomalous crater adds power to the possibility and so does other circumstantial evidence.
Finally, the fact that all these enigmas are within one general region (as opposed to scattered across the world) adds even further weight to the case… but then this should be expected if we were to consider this case to be the best evidence.
The problem of the “best evidence” is often that it sounds too good to be true. That is either because it is, or because it is indeed the “best evidence”.
And only careful analysis of the evidence will reveal what is what.
submitted by CuteBananaMuffin to conspiracy [link] [comments]


2020.07.28 11:50 fnrptr Randall Carlson New Podcast

Randall Carlson has a vast knowledge that he uses to understand the history of humanity. The First time I was shocked by the evidence he presented was on a Joe Rogan Podcast:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0Cp7DrvNLQ
(I will include a table of contents to the above video at the end of this post, i am copy and pasting it from one of the comments on the youtube video)
Anyway, I am excited to find that Randall Carlson is starting his own podcast. In this clip he details what he will be talking about:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=129&v=iK5SAlKkJgI
TABLE OF CONTENTS - JRE #606
0:04:16 Homo sapiens idaltu, oldest modern human skeleton> 7000 generations of humans
0:05:45 new discoveries lending credence to Graham Hancock's thesis
0:06:22 Gobekli Tepe
0:07:30 Tunguska Event, speed and kinetic punch
0:08:27 Possible reason for purposely burying of Gobekli Tepe
0:11:15 Cleopatra < Great Pyramids
0:12:28 Scale of potential loss of human civilization due to massive impact event(s)
0:14:20 Oxygen isotopes in Greenland, summit ice core samples
0:17:18 Implications for our modern mainstream model of climate change induced catastrophe
0:24:00 The limited scope of the modern climate change debate/'consensus' view and the danger of that, see 0:38:38
0:26:25 Greenland Ice Sheet project history
0:27:31 Little Ice Age, important context
0:29:00 Two periods of global cooling in the last two thosand years
0:30:32 Holy Grail Quest Stories
0:31:33 Dendrochronologists' discovery of stunted forest growth in northern hemisphere in the period of the Grail Quest for 8-10 years, supported by historical records of the time leading to Justinian Plague
0:33:20 Recovery, brought on by retur of warmth, 900AD, medieval warm period
0:35:06 Cathedral building phenomenon, ended by Little Ice Age, Black plague
0:38:38 Why are we ignoring this evidence? The problem with the IPCC
0:40:59 The real Inconvenient Truth
0:42:00 Eemian interglacial period temperature oscillations
0:42:22 Oboriginal tales past down through oral tradition about sea levels, analyses by archaeologist W. Bruce Massey
0:45:59 Younger Dryas
0:47:56 Rate of sea level rise, not smooth
0:48:43 Late Pleistocene mortality graph, ~120 species of mega mammals went extinct
0:50:00 Dominant hypothesis of ''overkill'' or ''blitzkrieg'' to explain the extinction of the mammoths..
0:52:13 Founding fathers of geology > new school of thought, catastrophism v uniformitarianism
0:54:49 J. Harlen Bretz' proposition of gigantic floods in pacific North West being ignored by peers in 1920
0:56:12 Transition in earth sciences incorporating parts Bretz his findings, but with a modern example that doesn't scale or compare with Bretz' findings; the new dogma
0:59:36 Joe mentions the problem with the ''overkill'' hypothesis and Randall adds to it
1:00:05 One of the many mammoth cemeteries
1:01:50 Joe is spooked by Randall's snorting and tries to play it off by refering to the drawing of the 'ivory floor' of the London docks covered in Siberian mammoth tusks
1:07:07 Joe asks for Randall's desktop wallpaper, Randall keeps him in suspense for a little longer, shows satellite photo instead
1:11:00 Canada didn't exist
1:14:41 The Bering Strait during Ice Age is exposed, connecting Siberia to North America, 14000-15000yrs ago
1:15:54 Indonesia, modern day v Ice Age
1:16:55 Hundreds of stories that parallel the story of Noah, coinciding with the exisiting data
1:19:09 if we accept that the stories are based on real events, what do the parts of the persons with foreknowledge imply?
1:19:53 Europe now v during Ice Age, ~15000 yrs ago
1:20:35 Mt. Jumbo, Missoula, Western Montana, shorelines reaching to tops of the hillside
1:21:27 Latrourelle Falls, Basalt layers
1:23:53 West (boulder) Bar giant current ripples, 50ft high
1:25:54 New trend in evidence, geological community is moving in the direction of Randall's assertion, some of the older guard is defending the idea of the jökulhlaups, group of Canadian geologists, John Shaw et al., are challenging this
1:27:50 Where the water for these massive floods came from, asteroidal impact
1:28:45 Impact craters of the last 10.000 yrs, potentially causing massive tsunami's
1:30:45 Modern consensus view of the Younger Dryas, exact match with Plato's account of the subsiding of Atlantis beneath the waves
1:34:20 Recent research, shock-synthesized hexagonal diamonds in Younger Dryas boundary sediments, micro-diamonds, nuclear glass all correlates with massive cosmic impacts
1:35:40 Overspecialization in modern science, pro's and cons
1:40:02 Listing recent discoveries supporting Younger Dryas cosmic impact hypothesis and narrowing down date to 12.800-12.900yrs ago
1:42:37 Randall mentions gratification as he theorized this 25yrs ago and Joe asks how he became so obsessed with this
1:52:58 What this all means for our species, on a larger scale, big picture, according to Randall
1:53:41 Emerging evidence human population crashed during Younger Dryas
1:55:16 Book of Matthew interesting quote where Jesus talk about what the end of days will look like, what it implies
1:58:33 The moral to all of this, what should we do in terms of consumption of Earth's resources and what to direct our collective efforts at
2:01:34 Error of gradualism in the environmental movement
2:03:27 We'd be fucked without Jupiter
2:03:53 Sacred Geometry and Freemasonry
2:06:58 Difference between modern and ancient architecture, ''textbooks in stone''
2:08:48 What is the Masonic Order, 'secrets of Freemasons', Masonic traditions
2:12:30 Freemasons as custodians of ancient symbolism, Noah's ark, acacia tree, DMT
2:16:15 DMT as a boon to mankind and the mistake of criminalizing it
2:21:34 Climatic optimum after population crash/ Ice Age
2:25:14 Climate shifts again into neo-glaciation, 6000yrs ago
2:27:40 Traumatic effect on consciousness as result of surviving near-extinction event, perhaps gene-deep
2:29:44 insert ''aliens'' meme
2:30:26 Responds hypothetically by calling back to the ''7000 generations of modern humans'' point and potential advancements of past civilizations, kicks off from there
2:37:58 Freedom to innovate stifled by bureaucracy, encumbering creative processes
2:40:39 Resistance motivates action
2:42:32 parable about making your own way
2:44:05 Why the name ''Sacred Geometry''
2:44:56 Architecture, geometry, of our solar system is in perfect balance to allow for us to exist; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune via bucket mechanism deliver Panspermia to Earth
2:50:02 (Hypothetical) New Jerusalem
submitted by fnrptr to SacredGeometry [link] [comments]


2020.07.28 09:01 fnrptr Cosmography - Randall Carlson

I am excited to share a topic that I don't see posted that often. This is an alternative look at Anthropology without bringing in a theory of alien intervention.
Randall Carlson has a vast knowledge that he uses to understand the history of humanity. The First time I was shocked by the evidence he presented was on a Joe Rogan Podcast:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0Cp7DrvNLQ
(I will include a table of contents to the above video at the end of this post, i am copy and pasting it from one of the comments on the youtube video)

Anyway, I am excited to find that Randall Carlson is starting his own podcast. In this clip he details what he will be talking about:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=129&v=iK5SAlKkJgI

TABLE OF CONTENTS - JRE #606
0:04:16 Homo sapiens idaltu, oldest modern human skeleton> 7000 generations of humans
0:05:45 new discoveries lending credence to Graham Hancock's thesis
0:06:22 Gobekli Tepe
0:07:30 Tunguska Event, speed and kinetic punch
0:08:27 Possible reason for purposely burying of Gobekli Tepe
0:11:15 Cleopatra < Great Pyramids
0:12:28 Scale of potential loss of human civilization due to massive impact event(s)
0:14:20 Oxygen isotopes in Greenland, summit ice core samples
0:17:18 Implications for our modern mainstream model of climate change induced catastrophe
0:24:00 The limited scope of the modern climate change debate/'consensus' view and the danger of that, see 0:38:38
0:26:25 Greenland Ice Sheet project history
0:27:31 Little Ice Age, important context
0:29:00 Two periods of global cooling in the last two thosand years
0:30:32 Holy Grail Quest Stories
0:31:33 Dendrochronologists' discovery of stunted forest growth in northern hemisphere in the period of the Grail Quest for 8-10 years, supported by historical records of the time leading to Justinian Plague
0:33:20 Recovery, brought on by retur of warmth, 900AD, medieval warm period
0:35:06 Cathedral building phenomenon, ended by Little Ice Age, Black plague
0:38:38 Why are we ignoring this evidence? The problem with the IPCC
0:40:59 The real Inconvenient Truth
0:42:00 Eemian interglacial period temperature oscillations
0:42:22 Oboriginal tales past down through oral tradition about sea levels, analyses by archaeologist W. Bruce Massey
0:45:59 Younger Dryas
0:47:56 Rate of sea level rise, not smooth
0:48:43 Late Pleistocene mortality graph, ~120 species of mega mammals went extinct
0:50:00 Dominant hypothesis of ''overkill'' or ''blitzkrieg'' to explain the extinction of the mammoths..
0:52:13 Founding fathers of geology > new school of thought, catastrophism v uniformitarianism
0:54:49 J. Harlen Bretz' proposition of gigantic floods in pacific North West being ignored by peers in 1920
0:56:12 Transition in earth sciences incorporating parts Bretz his findings, but with a modern example that doesn't scale or compare with Bretz' findings; the new dogma
0:59:36 Joe mentions the problem with the ''overkill'' hypothesis and Randall adds to it
1:00:05 One of the many mammoth cemeteries
1:01:50 Joe is spooked by Randall's snorting and tries to play it off by refering to the drawing of the 'ivory floor' of the London docks covered in Siberian mammoth tusks
1:07:07 Joe asks for Randall's desktop wallpaper, Randall keeps him in suspense for a little longer, shows satellite photo instead
1:11:00 Canada didn't exist
1:14:41 The Bering Strait during Ice Age is exposed, connecting Siberia to North America, 14000-15000yrs ago
1:15:54 Indonesia, modern day v Ice Age
1:16:55 Hundreds of stories that parallel the story of Noah, coinciding with the exisiting data
1:19:09 if we accept that the stories are based on real events, what do the parts of the persons with foreknowledge imply?
1:19:53 Europe now v during Ice Age, ~15000 yrs ago
1:20:35 Mt. Jumbo, Missoula, Western Montana, shorelines reaching to tops of the hillside
1:21:27 Latrourelle Falls, Basalt layers
1:23:53 West (boulder) Bar giant current ripples, 50ft high
1:25:54 New trend in evidence, geological community is moving in the direction of Randall's assertion, some of the older guard is defending the idea of the jökulhlaups, group of Canadian geologists, John Shaw et al., are challenging this
1:27:50 Where the water for these massive floods came from, asteroidal impact
1:28:45 Impact craters of the last 10.000 yrs, potentially causing massive tsunami's
1:30:45 Modern consensus view of the Younger Dryas, exact match with Plato's account of the subsiding of Atlantis beneath the waves
1:34:20 Recent research, shock-synthesized hexagonal diamonds in Younger Dryas boundary sediments, micro-diamonds, nuclear glass all correlates with massive cosmic impacts
1:35:40 Overspecialization in modern science, pro's and cons
1:40:02 Listing recent discoveries supporting Younger Dryas cosmic impact hypothesis and narrowing down date to 12.800-12.900yrs ago
1:42:37 Randall mentions gratification as he theorized this 25yrs ago and Joe asks how he became so obsessed with this
1:52:58 What this all means for our species, on a larger scale, big picture, according to Randall
1:53:41 Emerging evidence human population crashed during Younger Dryas
1:55:16 Book of Matthew interesting quote where Jesus talk about what the end of days will look like, what it implies
1:58:33 The moral to all of this, what should we do in terms of consumption of Earth's resources and what to direct our collective efforts at
2:01:34 Error of gradualism in the environmental movement
2:03:27 We'd be fucked without Jupiter
2:03:53 Sacred Geometry and Freemasonry
2:06:58 Difference between modern and ancient architecture, ''textbooks in stone''
2:08:48 What is the Masonic Order, 'secrets of Freemasons', Masonic traditions
2:12:30 Freemasons as custodians of ancient symbolism, Noah's ark, acacia tree, DMT
2:16:15 DMT as a boon to mankind and the mistake of criminalizing it
2:21:34 Climatic optimum after population crash/ Ice Age
2:25:14 Climate shifts again into neo-glaciation, 6000yrs ago
2:27:40 Traumatic effect on consciousness as result of surviving near-extinction event, perhaps gene-deep
2:29:44 insert ''aliens'' meme
2:30:26 Responds hypothetically by calling back to the ''7000 generations of modern humans'' point and potential advancements of past civilizations, kicks off from there
2:37:58 Freedom to innovate stifled by bureaucracy, encumbering creative processes
2:40:39 Resistance motivates action
2:42:32 parable about making your own way
2:44:05 Why the name ''Sacred Geometry''
2:44:56 Architecture, geometry, of our solar system is in perfect balance to allow for us to exist; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune via bucket mechanism deliver Panspermia to Earth
2:50:02 (Hypothetical) New Jerusalem as representation of our solar system, furlongs, horse racing, 7920, miles, numbers math my brain
submitted by fnrptr to AlternativeHistory [link] [comments]


2020.07.28 09:00 fnrptr Cosmography - Randall Carlson

I am excited to share a topic that I don't see posted that often. This is an alternative look at Anthropology without bringing in a theory of alien intervention.
Randall Carlson has a vast knowledge that he uses to understand the history of humanity. The First time I was shocked by the evidence he presented was on a Joe Rogan Podcast:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0Cp7DrvNLQ
(I will include a table of contents to the above video at the end of this post, i am copy and pasting it from one of the comments on the youtube video)

Anyway, I am excited to find that Randall Carlson is starting his own podcast. In this clip he details what he will be talking about:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=129&v=iK5SAlKkJgI

TABLE OF CONTENTS - JRE #606
0:04:16 Homo sapiens idaltu, oldest modern human skeleton> 7000 generations of humans
0:05:45 new discoveries lending credence to Graham Hancock's thesis
0:06:22 Gobekli Tepe
0:07:30 Tunguska Event, speed and kinetic punch
0:08:27 Possible reason for purposely burying of Gobekli Tepe
0:11:15 Cleopatra < Great Pyramids
0:12:28 Scale of potential loss of human civilization due to massive impact event(s)
0:14:20 Oxygen isotopes in Greenland, summit ice core samples
0:17:18 Implications for our modern mainstream model of climate change induced catastrophe
0:24:00 The limited scope of the modern climate change debate/'consensus' view and the danger of that, see 0:38:38
0:26:25 Greenland Ice Sheet project history
0:27:31 Little Ice Age, important context
0:29:00 Two periods of global cooling in the last two thosand years
0:30:32 Holy Grail Quest Stories
0:31:33 Dendrochronologists' discovery of stunted forest growth in northern hemisphere in the period of the Grail Quest for 8-10 years, supported by historical records of the time leading to Justinian Plague
0:33:20 Recovery, brought on by retur of warmth, 900AD, medieval warm period
0:35:06 Cathedral building phenomenon, ended by Little Ice Age, Black plague
0:38:38 Why are we ignoring this evidence? The problem with the IPCC
0:40:59 The real Inconvenient Truth
0:42:00 Eemian interglacial period temperature oscillations
0:42:22 Oboriginal tales past down through oral tradition about sea levels, analyses by archaeologist W. Bruce Massey
0:45:59 Younger Dryas
0:47:56 Rate of sea level rise, not smooth
0:48:43 Late Pleistocene mortality graph, ~120 species of mega mammals went extinct
0:50:00 Dominant hypothesis of ''overkill'' or ''blitzkrieg'' to explain the extinction of the mammoths..
0:52:13 Founding fathers of geology > new school of thought, catastrophism v uniformitarianism
0:54:49 J. Harlen Bretz' proposition of gigantic floods in pacific North West being ignored by peers in 1920
0:56:12 Transition in earth sciences incorporating parts Bretz his findings, but with a modern example that doesn't scale or compare with Bretz' findings; the new dogma
0:59:36 Joe mentions the problem with the ''overkill'' hypothesis and Randall adds to it
1:00:05 One of the many mammoth cemeteries
1:01:50 Joe is spooked by Randall's snorting and tries to play it off by refering to the drawing of the 'ivory floor' of the London docks covered in Siberian mammoth tusks
1:07:07 Joe asks for Randall's desktop wallpaper, Randall keeps him in suspense for a little longer, shows satellite photo instead
1:11:00 Canada didn't exist
1:14:41 The Bering Strait during Ice Age is exposed, connecting Siberia to North America, 14000-15000yrs ago
1:15:54 Indonesia, modern day v Ice Age
1:16:55 Hundreds of stories that parallel the story of Noah, coinciding with the exisiting data
1:19:09 if we accept that the stories are based on real events, what do the parts of the persons with foreknowledge imply?
1:19:53 Europe now v during Ice Age, ~15000 yrs ago
1:20:35 Mt. Jumbo, Missoula, Western Montana, shorelines reaching to tops of the hillside
1:21:27 Latrourelle Falls, Basalt layers
1:23:53 West (boulder) Bar giant current ripples, 50ft high
1:25:54 New trend in evidence, geological community is moving in the direction of Randall's assertion, some of the older guard is defending the idea of the jökulhlaups, group of Canadian geologists, John Shaw et al., are challenging this
1:27:50 Where the water for these massive floods came from, asteroidal impact
1:28:45 Impact craters of the last 10.000 yrs, potentially causing massive tsunami's
1:30:45 Modern consensus view of the Younger Dryas, exact match with Plato's account of the subsiding of Atlantis beneath the waves
1:34:20 Recent research, shock-synthesized hexagonal diamonds in Younger Dryas boundary sediments, micro-diamonds, nuclear glass all correlates with massive cosmic impacts
1:35:40 Overspecialization in modern science, pro's and cons
1:40:02 Listing recent discoveries supporting Younger Dryas cosmic impact hypothesis and narrowing down date to 12.800-12.900yrs ago
1:42:37 Randall mentions gratification as he theorized this 25yrs ago and Joe asks how he became so obsessed with this
1:52:58 What this all means for our species, on a larger scale, big picture, according to Randall
1:53:41 Emerging evidence human population crashed during Younger Dryas
1:55:16 Book of Matthew interesting quote where Jesus talk about what the end of days will look like, what it implies
1:58:33 The moral to all of this, what should we do in terms of consumption of Earth's resources and what to direct our collective efforts at
2:01:34 Error of gradualism in the environmental movement
2:03:27 We'd be fucked without Jupiter
2:03:53 Sacred Geometry and Freemasonry
2:06:58 Difference between modern and ancient architecture, ''textbooks in stone''
2:08:48 What is the Masonic Order, 'secrets of Freemasons', Masonic traditions
2:12:30 Freemasons as custodians of ancient symbolism, Noah's ark, acacia tree, DMT
2:16:15 DMT as a boon to mankind and the mistake of criminalizing it
2:21:34 Climatic optimum after population crash/ Ice Age
2:25:14 Climate shifts again into neo-glaciation, 6000yrs ago
2:27:40 Traumatic effect on consciousness as result of surviving near-extinction event, perhaps gene-deep
2:29:44 insert ''aliens'' meme
2:30:26 Responds hypothetically by calling back to the ''7000 generations of modern humans'' point and potential advancements of past civilizations, kicks off from there
2:37:58 Freedom to innovate stifled by bureaucracy, encumbering creative processes
2:40:39 Resistance motivates action
2:42:32 parable about making your own way
2:44:05 Why the name ''Sacred Geometry''
2:44:56 Architecture, geometry, of our solar system is in perfect balance to allow for us to exist; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune via bucket mechanism deliver Panspermia to Earth
2:50:02 (Hypothetical) New Jerusalem as representation of our solar system, furlongs, horse racing, 7920, miles, numbers math my brain
submitted by fnrptr to TopConspiracy [link] [comments]


2020.07.28 08:59 fnrptr Cosmography - Randall Carlson

I am excited to share a topic that I don't see posted that often. This is an alternative look at Anthropology without bringing in a theory of alien intervention.
Randall Carlson has a vast knowledge that he uses to understand the history of humanity. The First time I was shocked by the evidence he presented was on a Joe Rogan Podcast:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0Cp7DrvNLQ
(I will include a table of contents to the above video at the end of this post, i am copy and pasting it from one of the comments on the youtube video)

Anyway, I am excited to find that Randall Carlson is starting his own podcast. In this clip he details what he will be talking about:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=129&v=iK5SAlKkJgI

TABLE OF CONTENTS - JRE #606
0:04:16 Homo sapiens idaltu, oldest modern human skeleton> 7000 generations of humans
0:05:45 new discoveries lending credence to Graham Hancock's thesis
0:06:22 Gobekli Tepe
0:07:30 Tunguska Event, speed and kinetic punch
0:08:27 Possible reason for purposely burying of Gobekli Tepe
0:11:15 Cleopatra < Great Pyramids
0:12:28 Scale of potential loss of human civilization due to massive impact event(s)
0:14:20 Oxygen isotopes in Greenland, summit ice core samples
0:17:18 Implications for our modern mainstream model of climate change induced catastrophe
0:24:00 The limited scope of the modern climate change debate/'consensus' view and the danger of that, see 0:38:38
0:26:25 Greenland Ice Sheet project history
0:27:31 Little Ice Age, important context
0:29:00 Two periods of global cooling in the last two thosand years
0:30:32 Holy Grail Quest Stories
0:31:33 Dendrochronologists' discovery of stunted forest growth in northern hemisphere in the period of the Grail Quest for 8-10 years, supported by historical records of the time leading to Justinian Plague
0:33:20 Recovery, brought on by retur of warmth, 900AD, medieval warm period
0:35:06 Cathedral building phenomenon, ended by Little Ice Age, Black plague
0:38:38 Why are we ignoring this evidence? The problem with the IPCC
0:40:59 The real Inconvenient Truth
0:42:00 Eemian interglacial period temperature oscillations
0:42:22 Oboriginal tales past down through oral tradition about sea levels, analyses by archaeologist W. Bruce Massey
0:45:59 Younger Dryas
0:47:56 Rate of sea level rise, not smooth
0:48:43 Late Pleistocene mortality graph, ~120 species of mega mammals went extinct
0:50:00 Dominant hypothesis of ''overkill'' or ''blitzkrieg'' to explain the extinction of the mammoths..
0:52:13 Founding fathers of geology > new school of thought, catastrophism v uniformitarianism
0:54:49 J. Harlen Bretz' proposition of gigantic floods in pacific North West being ignored by peers in 1920
0:56:12 Transition in earth sciences incorporating parts Bretz his findings, but with a modern example that doesn't scale or compare with Bretz' findings; the new dogma
0:59:36 Joe mentions the problem with the ''overkill'' hypothesis and Randall adds to it
1:00:05 One of the many mammoth cemeteries
1:01:50 Joe is spooked by Randall's snorting and tries to play it off by refering to the drawing of the 'ivory floor' of the London docks covered in Siberian mammoth tusks
1:07:07 Joe asks for Randall's desktop wallpaper, Randall keeps him in suspense for a little longer, shows satellite photo instead
1:11:00 Canada didn't exist
1:14:41 The Bering Strait during Ice Age is exposed, connecting Siberia to North America, 14000-15000yrs ago
1:15:54 Indonesia, modern day v Ice Age
1:16:55 Hundreds of stories that parallel the story of Noah, coinciding with the exisiting data
1:19:09 if we accept that the stories are based on real events, what do the parts of the persons with foreknowledge imply?
1:19:53 Europe now v during Ice Age, ~15000 yrs ago
1:20:35 Mt. Jumbo, Missoula, Western Montana, shorelines reaching to tops of the hillside
1:21:27 Latrourelle Falls, Basalt layers
1:23:53 West (boulder) Bar giant current ripples, 50ft high
1:25:54 New trend in evidence, geological community is moving in the direction of Randall's assertion, some of the older guard is defending the idea of the jökulhlaups, group of Canadian geologists, John Shaw et al., are challenging this
1:27:50 Where the water for these massive floods came from, asteroidal impact
1:28:45 Impact craters of the last 10.000 yrs, potentially causing massive tsunami's
1:30:45 Modern consensus view of the Younger Dryas, exact match with Plato's account of the subsiding of Atlantis beneath the waves
1:34:20 Recent research, shock-synthesized hexagonal diamonds in Younger Dryas boundary sediments, micro-diamonds, nuclear glass all correlates with massive cosmic impacts
1:35:40 Overspecialization in modern science, pro's and cons
1:40:02 Listing recent discoveries supporting Younger Dryas cosmic impact hypothesis and narrowing down date to 12.800-12.900yrs ago
1:42:37 Randall mentions gratification as he theorized this 25yrs ago and Joe asks how he became so obsessed with this
1:52:58 What this all means for our species, on a larger scale, big picture, according to Randall
1:53:41 Emerging evidence human population crashed during Younger Dryas
1:55:16 Book of Matthew interesting quote where Jesus talk about what the end of days will look like, what it implies
1:58:33 The moral to all of this, what should we do in terms of consumption of Earth's resources and what to direct our collective efforts at
2:01:34 Error of gradualism in the environmental movement
2:03:27 We'd be fucked without Jupiter
2:03:53 Sacred Geometry and Freemasonry
2:06:58 Difference between modern and ancient architecture, ''textbooks in stone''
2:08:48 What is the Masonic Order, 'secrets of Freemasons', Masonic traditions
2:12:30 Freemasons as custodians of ancient symbolism, Noah's ark, acacia tree, DMT
2:16:15 DMT as a boon to mankind and the mistake of criminalizing it
2:21:34 Climatic optimum after population crash/ Ice Age
2:25:14 Climate shifts again into neo-glaciation, 6000yrs ago
2:27:40 Traumatic effect on consciousness as result of surviving near-extinction event, perhaps gene-deep
2:29:44 insert ''aliens'' meme
2:30:26 Responds hypothetically by calling back to the ''7000 generations of modern humans'' point and potential advancements of past civilizations, kicks off from there
2:37:58 Freedom to innovate stifled by bureaucracy, encumbering creative processes
2:40:39 Resistance motivates action
2:42:32 parable about making your own way
2:44:05 Why the name ''Sacred Geometry''
2:44:56 Architecture, geometry, of our solar system is in perfect balance to allow for us to exist; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune via bucket mechanism deliver Panspermia to Earth
2:50:02 (Hypothetical) New Jerusalem as representation of our solar system, furlongs, horse racing, 7920, miles, numbers math my brain
submitted by fnrptr to conspiracytheories [link] [comments]


2020.07.28 08:58 fnrptr Cosmography - Randall Carlson

I am excited to share a topic that I don't see posted that often. This is an alternative look at Anthropology without bringing in a theory of alien intervention.
Randall Carlson has a vast knowledge that he uses to understand the history of humanity. The First time I was shocked by the evidence he presented was on a Joe Rogan Podcast:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G0Cp7DrvNLQ
(I will include a table of contents to the above video at the end of this post, i am copy and pasting it from one of the comments on the youtube video)

Anyway, I am excited to find that Randall Carlson is starting his own podcast. In this clip he details what he will be talking about:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=129&v=iK5SAlKkJgI

TABLE OF CONTENTS - JRE #606
0:04:16 Homo sapiens idaltu, oldest modern human skeleton> 7000 generations of humans
0:05:45 new discoveries lending credence to Graham Hancock's thesis
0:06:22 Gobekli Tepe
0:07:30 Tunguska Event, speed and kinetic punch
0:08:27 Possible reason for purposely burying of Gobekli Tepe
0:11:15 Cleopatra < Great Pyramids
0:12:28 Scale of potential loss of human civilization due to massive impact event(s)
0:14:20 Oxygen isotopes in Greenland, summit ice core samples
0:17:18 Implications for our modern mainstream model of climate change induced catastrophe
0:24:00 The limited scope of the modern climate change debate/'consensus' view and the danger of that, see 0:38:38
0:26:25 Greenland Ice Sheet project history
0:27:31 Little Ice Age, important context
0:29:00 Two periods of global cooling in the last two thosand years
0:30:32 Holy Grail Quest Stories
0:31:33 Dendrochronologists' discovery of stunted forest growth in northern hemisphere in the period of the Grail Quest for 8-10 years, supported by historical records of the time leading to Justinian Plague
0:33:20 Recovery, brought on by retur of warmth, 900AD, medieval warm period
0:35:06 Cathedral building phenomenon, ended by Little Ice Age, Black plague
0:38:38 Why are we ignoring this evidence? The problem with the IPCC
0:40:59 The real Inconvenient Truth
0:42:00 Eemian interglacial period temperature oscillations
0:42:22 Oboriginal tales past down through oral tradition about sea levels, analyses by archaeologist W. Bruce Massey
0:45:59 Younger Dryas
0:47:56 Rate of sea level rise, not smooth
0:48:43 Late Pleistocene mortality graph, ~120 species of mega mammals went extinct
0:50:00 Dominant hypothesis of ''overkill'' or ''blitzkrieg'' to explain the extinction of the mammoths..
0:52:13 Founding fathers of geology > new school of thought, catastrophism v uniformitarianism
0:54:49 J. Harlen Bretz' proposition of gigantic floods in pacific North West being ignored by peers in 1920
0:56:12 Transition in earth sciences incorporating parts Bretz his findings, but with a modern example that doesn't scale or compare with Bretz' findings; the new dogma
0:59:36 Joe mentions the problem with the ''overkill'' hypothesis and Randall adds to it
1:00:05 One of the many mammoth cemeteries
1:01:50 Joe is spooked by Randall's snorting and tries to play it off by refering to the drawing of the 'ivory floor' of the London docks covered in Siberian mammoth tusks
1:07:07 Joe asks for Randall's desktop wallpaper, Randall keeps him in suspense for a little longer, shows satellite photo instead
1:11:00 Canada didn't exist
1:14:41 The Bering Strait during Ice Age is exposed, connecting Siberia to North America, 14000-15000yrs ago
1:15:54 Indonesia, modern day v Ice Age
1:16:55 Hundreds of stories that parallel the story of Noah, coinciding with the exisiting data
1:19:09 if we accept that the stories are based on real events, what do the parts of the persons with foreknowledge imply?
1:19:53 Europe now v during Ice Age, ~15000 yrs ago
1:20:35 Mt. Jumbo, Missoula, Western Montana, shorelines reaching to tops of the hillside
1:21:27 Latrourelle Falls, Basalt layers
1:23:53 West (boulder) Bar giant current ripples, 50ft high
1:25:54 New trend in evidence, geological community is moving in the direction of Randall's assertion, some of the older guard is defending the idea of the jökulhlaups, group of Canadian geologists, John Shaw et al., are challenging this
1:27:50 Where the water for these massive floods came from, asteroidal impact
1:28:45 Impact craters of the last 10.000 yrs, potentially causing massive tsunami's
1:30:45 Modern consensus view of the Younger Dryas, exact match with Plato's account of the subsiding of Atlantis beneath the waves
1:34:20 Recent research, shock-synthesized hexagonal diamonds in Younger Dryas boundary sediments, micro-diamonds, nuclear glass all correlates with massive cosmic impacts
1:35:40 Overspecialization in modern science, pro's and cons
1:40:02 Listing recent discoveries supporting Younger Dryas cosmic impact hypothesis and narrowing down date to 12.800-12.900yrs ago
1:42:37 Randall mentions gratification as he theorized this 25yrs ago and Joe asks how he became so obsessed with this
1:52:58 What this all means for our species, on a larger scale, big picture, according to Randall
1:53:41 Emerging evidence human population crashed during Younger Dryas
1:55:16 Book of Matthew interesting quote where Jesus talk about what the end of days will look like, what it implies
1:58:33 The moral to all of this, what should we do in terms of consumption of Earth's resources and what to direct our collective efforts at
2:01:34 Error of gradualism in the environmental movement
2:03:27 We'd be fucked without Jupiter
2:03:53 Sacred Geometry and Freemasonry
2:06:58 Difference between modern and ancient architecture, ''textbooks in stone''
2:08:48 What is the Masonic Order, 'secrets of Freemasons', Masonic traditions
2:12:30 Freemasons as custodians of ancient symbolism, Noah's ark, acacia tree, DMT
2:16:15 DMT as a boon to mankind and the mistake of criminalizing it
2:21:34 Climatic optimum after population crash/ Ice Age
2:25:14 Climate shifts again into neo-glaciation, 6000yrs ago
2:27:40 Traumatic effect on consciousness as result of surviving near-extinction event, perhaps gene-deep
2:29:44 insert ''aliens'' meme
2:30:26 Responds hypothetically by calling back to the ''7000 generations of modern humans'' point and potential advancements of past civilizations, kicks off from there
2:37:58 Freedom to innovate stifled by bureaucracy, encumbering creative processes
2:40:39 Resistance motivates action
2:42:32 parable about making your own way
2:44:05 Why the name ''Sacred Geometry''
2:44:56 Architecture, geometry, of our solar system is in perfect balance to allow for us to exist; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune via bucket mechanism deliver Panspermia to Earth
2:50:02 (Hypothetical) New Jerusalem as representation of our solar system, furlongs, horse racing, 7920, miles, numbers math my brain
submitted by fnrptr to conspiracy [link] [comments]


2020.07.28 00:26 seanfsmith [Session Report] Behind Closed Doors with Gully-Toads

This evening we delved into Luke Gearing's Castle Ascania from Behind Closed Doors using my Gully-Toads.

Date

Dramatis personae

Nusplinger

The Gully-Toads' mercurial portal opened up to a drab looking grass plain with some thatched huts perhaps half a mile off, and a good few miles beyond that a stark basalt cliff topped by a strange castle jutting out of the cliff, almost like a tooth.
Joc scoped out the village, spotted a half dozen huts with some human inhabitants, and a hell of a lot of pigs. He let the others know and the three openly approached the village. They were met by three identical women, bearing the gift of a pork pie. The gully-toads spoke with these women and learned a little about the town, though the women themselves seemed forgetful and a bit distant. Heft asked for an introduction to the town elder, a woman named Lotte, and the girls were happy to oblige.
Lotte welcomed her guests kindly, and asked if they had come to rid the town of the dire influence of the Castle. She seemed to be the only person whose energy and memories were not being suppressed by the Castle, which had grown like a mushroom from a ruined keep that had been there millennia. Five years ago, two men from the village went to explore the Castle, but neither returned. Lotte didn't want to risk more, and noone had come from Drinburg when requested. But her flock seem happy enough, so she looks after them as best she could.
The gully-toads asked for a few supplies, and Asher was particularly excited to pick up a powerful blunderbuss.

Ascania

They climbed the switchback path to the clifftop and approached the Castle proper. There was no gatehouse, no moat - in fact the Castle appeared to have grown out of the very rock itself. Two vast iron doors seemed their only entry point. Joc took a close look and spotted a lock that could be picked if he had better tools...
Instead, Heft knocked heavily on the door, and his summons was soon met by a swingeing butler of a man, who invited them in, led them to a strange study and said he'd be back when he'd spoken with the Lord and Lady.
They weren't alone in the study. A few other men, dressed in fashionable Edwardian finery, top hats and powdered wigs, stood closely looking at a vast bookshelf. After speaking with the men, the toads learned that these men had been waiting a good long time here, and that the butler had never come back to fetch them. They convinced one of the men to head home, watched to see that he made it out safely, then explored deeper into the Castle.
The corridors did not behave normally. Though they could perceive no twist or turn in the path ahead, eventually the walls soon reached a vanishing point. Sometimes corridors would be in different orientations when the same door was reopened.
The gully-toads followed someone (probably the butler?) into a door off a new corridor and found a vast ballroom whose orchestra pit was full of shattered instruments. They found a trail the butler(?) had left and followed it through a door from the room, which led into a tiny room with nothing but a porcelain bath stained with blood. Experimenting with the bath, they were able to rip through the fabric of its base, opening up a tight spiral staircase in utter darkness.
They headed down these stairs, guided by the weak light of the lantern they had taken from Nusplinger. Eventually the stairs levelled out and they found themselves in a tiled room full of drug-taking devices and also three merry monks. The monks were dosed up after having lost a brother to a horrid hunting thing, and when Joc opened the door to see if it was still there, he was surprised as the door was thrust full back by an enormous porcelain lance.
Beyond the open door, a woman wearing silver and burnished copper plate armour, which had fused to a strong horse whose legs instead were the arms and tentacles of a squid. She smashed the lance into Joc, tearing a huge chunk from his shoulder
Giving him a 16 point wound. You roll D6+ biggest wound on the death and dismemberment table when you drop. 18+ is death.
Joc struggled to thrust his spear into the horse's underbelly, but Asher and Heft were able to hurt the lance itself (a twisting living thing, with boarlike bristles edging through cracks in its surface). The woman stretched her arm further than it should go, tearing a chunk from Heft's gut, but the lance was then shattered by careful buckshot from Asher's blunderbuss. The woman called out in rage and anguish, slammed the door shut, and galloped away down a corridor.
The Gully-Toads caught their breath and asked the monks help tend their wounds, but the harm was beyond these holy men. And so, the Gully-Toads decided to retreat the Castle, rest up and reconsider, before heading deeper in in a fortnight's time.
submitted by seanfsmith to osr [link] [comments]


2020.07.20 22:00 Drakonspyre_Gaming Hominid killing cat

I've been playing a few weeks. Just evolved for the first time today. My evolution put me back at the starting oasis, and I pushed through a few days expeditioning to Under-Cliff Oasis. I've settled there and took a generational jump. But everytime I go out the back cave down to the basalt and date palm, I'm attacked by a golden Machairodus. It's decimated my clan, killing two of my adults and two babies. I'm down to two siblings and one outsider. But what I don't understand is, despite being accurate on my counters, I'm still getting tackled to the ground. Any idea what's going on?
submitted by Drakonspyre_Gaming to ancestors [link] [comments]


2020.07.15 14:03 autotldr Remains of Aztec palace, house built by Hernán Cortés found near Mexico City plaza

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 48%. (I'm a bot)
The remains of an Aztec palace dating back to the mid-1400s and later used by Spanish conqueror Hernán Cortés were discovered near a central plaza in Mexico City, officials say.
Mexico's National Institute of Anthropology and History announced Monday that basalt slab floors believed to be part of an open plaza in the Palace of Axayácatl were discovered during an inspection at the Nacional Monte de Piedad, located near the Plaza del Zócalo.
Archaeologists have found parts of his palace over the past two decades, but the recent discovery of the building's foundation was made by Raúl Barrera Rodríguez and José María García Guerrero of the Urban Archeology Program, the National Institute of Anthropology and History said.
"Given its characteristics, the specialists deduced that it was part of an open space in the former Palace of Axayácatl, probably a courtyard," the institute wrote in a statement.
The materials used for the foundation of Cortés' house correspond to those in the toppled palace.
According to the institute, Cortés and his troops lived in the new building for several years, and it became the first seat of their new government in 1525.Nacional Monte de Piedad, the building under which the remains were found, is a national charity and pawnshop that also provides loans in Mexico.
Summary Source FAQ Feedback Top keywords: palace#1 Institute#2 National#3 foundation#4 found#5
Post found in /worldnews and /nofeenews.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]


2020.07.10 04:43 Dwovar [F] Grudge-Day of the Squats (4)

+++++++RECEIVED: CRUISER GLORIOUS VENGEANCE
+RETRANSMITTED: CRUISER GLORIOUS VENGEANCE
+++++++RECEIVED: HOLY TERRA
+++++++++++DATE: FILE CORRUPTED (estimate late M40)
TELEPATHIC DUCT: AENUTHR POST
++++++++++++REF: 09300000000012124424/AS.145 through .151 (Redirects for .1-.52, .53-.86, .87-.144)
++++++++AUTHOR: FILE CORRUPTED
++++++++SUBJECT: FILE CORRUPTED (estimate Tyranid invasion)
++++++THOUGHT: HISTORY PUTS TO INK TALLIES PAID IN BLOOD

Yoru swiped a pair of fingers back and forth across the dataslate on her desk. Her other hand scribbled on a sheet of decapede hide in precise, quick strokes. Currently the slate's read out was drawing her attention to the progress of the deep miners, well technically the foremen of said deep miners. Hers, foremen forty-three through eighty-seven, were kicking back No Progress reports at a stunning rate. On another, smaller, slate beside her she pulled up the records for foremen forthy-three through eighty-seven (there were only records for forty of them, four being new foremen with no significant records) yet none of them had had more than a few instances of No Progress in the last three years.
"Pjok, come have a look at this."
On the other side of there sparse office another squat, of middling age with a tight braid and garnet hued eyes, picked up her tusk of morning ale which trailed an aromatic steam as she crossed the ten steps to her comrade. "What is it?"
Yoru slid the dataslate over to give Pjok a better view.
"That's, hmm, that's not right. Are these current."
"Yes, as of fifteen minutes ago."
"And these are for sure accurate? Because, wow."
"I don't know, that's the problem. If they are accurate then... trax, right? But if its an error so what?"
"I just can't believe twenty foremen are reporting no progress. What was the record last year, nine?"
"Seven actually, two only counted as no progress due to signal errors."
"Could these be signal errors then?"
"Twenty signal errors? I doubt it. They're deep but they're not that deep."
Pjok took a long swig of her morning ale. "Well, what if there's seven real No Progress and thirteen signal errors?"
"Possible, but not really probable. Look, I pulled up the last six days reports from the No Progress foremen. See here?" She pointed at a column of data, "No reported issues, no predicted issues, all equipment accounted for and in good order. Now over here," she swiped the readout and a new set of columns appeared, "of the twenty No Progresses from today, twelve reported promising veins and four reported confirmed veins. These last two didn't report anything unusual."
"What about the update? Did the rune coders mess something up? Because if they didn't..."
"Trax, right? But the update was pushed four days ago and this data is from yesterday. Only two No Progress reports, one that ran into a slag wall and anticipated No Progress and one out of surprise."
"Hmm..."
"Right?" Yoru handed Pjok her notes. "I've marked down the history of those foremen. They're all pretty bog standard deviations, save three who are prone to going slower than average, but not by all that much honestly. And these three actually have a reputation of moving faster than average, but they're all in the No Progress groups.
"What about the rest, the foremen reporting progress? Are they in a different spot?"
Yoru hummed as she flipped through readouts and options for a bit. Finally the screen showed twenty-four rows. "About half of them are on the eastern deep, but the rest are scattered in with the No Progresses."
"It could be a localized issue. Some kind of interference or something. Mix that in with the average No Progress and rune coding issues, that might explain it. I'll see if the Runecode Hall is up to answering questions. See if there's anything else linking the No Progresses.
Pjok turned and picked her torc up off the desk, "By the way, are you coming to my son's Gemming Ceremony tonight? I've made a three tiered lichencake."
"What flavor?"
"Aeldari fruit and silver."
"Oh my, that sounds ancestral. Hey, what was his gem?"
"You can find out at the party with everyone else."
"Bah! Go call the Runecode Hall."
Yoru turned her back on Pjok and started filtering through data sets again. Something was wrong. In the background she could hear Pjok already getting into it with an adept runecoder and wished Pjok well. The Runecode Hall housed an irritable bunch.
Sorting through a massive spreadsheet, she sorted it by the No Progress report within twenty minutes and began running her eyes down the long list of columns. Age? No, all over seventy but fairly diverse beyond that. Kin? Nope, six new clans, three minor clans, eight major clans, one transfer from Bloodmouth, and two Hammerhand clan. How about noted deposits? Could be it, fourteen of them reported heavy sedimentary layers but the other eight were deep in igneous rock. How about equipment? Half of them were working with Thronebreaker drills and another quarter with Wurmbite grinders. The rest had home made kit. Something caught her eye twenty-nine columns in, a repetition that stood out by its very uniformity.
"Hey Pjok?"
"-no I don't know what's wrong. Yes, I checked the-"
"Pjok? Seriously Pjok, you need to come see this."
"-off and then back on again? Are you traxing kidding me-"
"PJOK!"
"-and your mother too! Hold on a minute. What is it Yoru, I've got this rune coder dead to rights and I'm winning the argument."
"Look at this! Their location codes are too uniform."
"Alright. Hey, limestone brain, I'm going to call you back in a minute. I'm not done with you." Pjok removed the torc and laid it down. "What are you showing me here?"
Yoru tapped the column, sorting the runes alphabetically for the No Progress reports. "Look."
"Ancestors! That can't be an error can it?"
"No, look, they're moving too." The readout for their locations was running in groups of four, and moving through the mines. Four were headed towards the mine entrance, four were headed deeper down, all the dataslates were moving together in groups of four.
"What's that flashing rune up in the corner Yoru?"
"Eh? Oh, update. Lemme see." her sturdy fingers gently tapped the slate. "Four new No Progress reports!"
"Look, they're all together too!" Pjok pointed accusingly at the screen. "Hey Yoru, you don't suppose they're just having a day off do you?"
"Umm, good question." A series of slow taps pulled up a live spread of their locations. "Well, looks like Foremen 5, 6, 13, and 25 are at the market. Wait, no, under the market? There's no mines there! That's been forbidden for, what, seven centuries?"
"Eight and a half, my Da lost his Gran in the market collapse."
"So what are they doing under the market?"
"Check the rest, check the rest."
"Umm, alright. Where's that, is that in the hab blocks or under it."
"Has to be under it, nothing in the hall goes below two point three three kilometers. I have a bad feeling about this Yoru. Where's that group at? I don't even think there's anything in that spot?"
"Umm... lemme cross reference it." Yoru snatched the discarded personal dataslate and began tapping runes. Eventually a coordinate map of Hammerhall Stronghold came up, loading slowly. Both gasped at the readout of the smaller slate.
"Wurmspit! Get your gun Yoru." Pjok shouted as she snatched the torc and clipped it about her throat, "We're going straight to the council hall." She reached under her desk as she passed, pulling out a short barrel shotgun and a wicked looking knife.
"They're sapping the traxing wall."
***
Eglir stood stunned before the council. Lord Hammerhand thanked the mining coordinators and the hall was dead silent, save for their retreating bootsteps. Heavy doors, embossed with the leaders of Hammerhall for eight millennia looked down on the council, many of whom looked back in despair. The silence refused to part, though Eglir could see a dozen squats' minds racing.
He had been waiting for several minutes to be heard, judging that the sapping of the walls was at least equally important to his own ill omens. Eglir coughed, the silence took offense and fled.
Councilman Kruk, "What clan dares sap our walls!"
Councilman Dwori, "A dead clan, that's who! I saw we deploy the hearthguard to the mines, break out the exos, take no prisoners!"
Councilman Hoarvan, "We can't deploy the whole hearthguard, there aren't enough of them and the sappings are too spread out. We have to pick something or lose everything."
Councilman Dwori, "I will not sacrifice the market, nor the habs, nor the walls, nor the armory, nor the forges! We cannot stand without each of them, losing one will doom us all."
Councilman Lur, "Then we fall! We must alert the populace and send them to battle as well."
Councilman Kruk, "Wisdom at last. Let the hammer fall!"
Councilman Hoarvan, "We need time to arm ourselves, if we send them all off with shotguns and knives who knows what they'll find? It could be a slaughter!"
Councilmen Dwori, "Do you doubt the resolve of Hammerhall? Do you defame the might of the squats?"
For seventeen minutes, Eglir had been desperately following the protocols of his places and trying to interject. He had even shouted at points, but the craft of the hall was so pronounced and well defined that no one outside the circle of councilmen, amplified by a magnificent sound amplifying dome, could possibly be heard. So Eglir took a new tack. He sang.
"The orks came to our land, and we fought them hand to hand,
Sweat and blood, turned the ground to mud,
Squat and ork in strife, sought to vanquish every life,
When the ham-mer-falls."
It was only one verse, sung poorly at that, but no squat would dare speak over the song once they heard it. The councilmembers turned, many of them outraged, to watch Eglir quite frankly butcher the ancient song.
"When the ham-mer-falls and our enemy crawls,
When the ham-mer-quakes, orkish cowards bones will break,
When the ham-mer-cracks, and it beats their armies back,
When the ham-mer's-boom sends the monsters, to their doom
When the ham-mer-fall, when the Ham-Mer-Falls."
Eglir didn't have the heart to carry on to the next verse. Councilman Kruk, clearly outraged, lit into the squat with a vengeance. "You stupid gravel-heart. You dare to interrupt this issue. An issue which holds the very lives of every squat in this hold on the cusp of destruction?! And you dare use that song to do it! Even if you were my own kin I'd throw you from the walls of the Stronghold, walls we may very well not have soon without decisive action thanks to your limestone brained interruption? A vote! I call a vote to exile Eglir Giantsbane from Hammerhall Stronghold the second we finish this much more important matter."
Eglir had faced a meganob at the gates, and the roar of its armor's engine had lent him a lesson on fear. "Are you finished?" He asked, very politely, very quietly even. Eglir's face lacked it's usual curiosity and mischief, it was the face of a tired old man who felt his time approaching. One most of the councilmen had seen on their parents' and their parents' parents before. Foreboding threatened to swallow the room.
"Good. I have some announcements to make. First, Spitespike has decided to join us. They should reach our walls within the next fifteen minutes if that. Second, reports of the Branded are turning up, fighting for the other strongholds. Third and finally," he took a slow breath, "the invaders have landed again. In greater numbers and variety than ever. Six holds have fallen in the last twenty minutes, six more have likely fallen while I waited. After that, there will only be six holds left, by the sounds of it, those six will fall before the Valaya sets."
"It has been my life's pride to serve Hammerhall." Eglir turned and marched back up the steps to his little sounding horn station and awaited further news of death and despair.
Colour drained from the faces of the councilmen and the hearthguard and the various workers who served the council. Squats looked to one another for comfort, finding none. Kruk looked to Hoarvan neither finding the spirit to snipe at the other. Lord Hammerhand rose from his granite throne, staring at the double doors.
"Friends, I believe it is time to have a vote, I am curious to your thinking. Our hold is being sapped from below, assailed from above, and we cannot expect more support than whatever Spitespike has managed; which I doubt to be significant. Gather up your gems and stones." He held up a immaculately cut garnet, "Do we stand?" placing the garnet on the table he held up a perfect cube of basalt, "Or do we retreat further underground."
The Lord raised his hammer of office, a gilded object of beauty, and struck a large steel gong which hung above the council table. Under the acoustic dome it echoed like a dirge. Simultaneously, all fifteen councilmen tossed a gem or a stone onto the center of the table. Three gems, ten stones, two tiny aluminum hammers. Councilmen Lur and Dwori removed themselves from the room, leaving their helm of office on the table.
"Very well, gather what you can warn everyone. Dig deep, forge well, stand proud."
Hammerhand turned, his face impassive to the revelations of the hour, and walked to a grand bell the likes of which had not been run in the history of Hammerhall. It was cast of bronze and a great iron tongue hung within. Hammerhand raised his glimmering hammer and struck the bell over and over, until the metal was warped and the hammer broke. The cavernous shaft beneath it split into many tunnels carrying sound waves down corridors crafted by their eldest ancestors. Their exits appeared all throughout the hold. Young children asked their stricken parents what the awful ringing meant, in response parents snatched them by the collar as the ran into the house and began throwing those most precious relics into great sacks or grav carts.
Chaos erupted through Hammerhall Stronghold. Smiths missed their mark, mechanics dropped their tools, startled engineers left long marks on their designs. In the markets vendors dumped their tables into carts and customers dropped merchandise they had been studying intently. Soldiers in the garrison lost their concentration, causing minor injuries to sparring partners. Miners simply stood, paralyzed at the sound. There was a cave in on a mineshaft as one miner dropped the detonator before the explosives had all been set, perhaps they would be the fortunate few. Even Eglir, high in his tower, who knew it was coming could not bring himself to part the words from his lips. He sat quietly, hands folded in his lap, and wept.
***
Tuskripper Hatebeard was having the time of her life. The engine on her warbike screeched as it hurdled over the uneven ground. Thirty squats just like her thundered over the open ground on their twisted and blackened machinery, their wheels a malicious conflagration. The trails of fire left in their wake did not die out as logic demanded, but twisted and danced in a mockery of life. The brand on Tuskripper's forehead shed flakes of ash as she tore across the blasted bio-hellscape screaming of glory and murder.
Her bald head and shorn face reflected in the bulbous eye of some massive invader beast. The eye held no emotion as the squat lashed out with her barbed chain, itself also inflamed, and struck the eye from its socket. Rather than turning to retaliate, the best toppled to its back is it's muscled spasmed until it's very spine broke.
"For the Brazen Brand!" shouted Tuskripper over the wind, her voice carrying above the din in unnatural pitch.
"For the Gods of War!" returned the warbike crew. Fell shotguns fired time and time again without reloading, barbed chains lashed out, sending the invaders into writhing agony. Those creatures which dared cross the burning barrier trailing the warbikes were consumed by famished flames and rent to ash in moments.
Tuskripper spoke into her torc, "Bikes don't have the same oomph they do today, do they Thundermaw?"
"Agreed Boss, they're not quite as zippy."
"Find out why and I won't flay the flesh from your bones and feed you to your slaves! I want Deathgape flying and it better be now!"
"Yes boss." A solitary biker peeled off the attack, lashing the strange beasts left and right as he went.
Across the field approaching from a different angle entirely, was another gang of warbikers. Under any other circumstances this would have erupted in a no holds barred turf war, but today was different. Painteater the Fister was cruising along at the head of his band of fifteen warbikes. Speakers in all manners of shapes, though mostly the gaping maws of greenskin and squat skulls, were blaring what could only be described as toxic noise. Whenever the invaders tried to close on the warbikes their very flesh began to vibrate wildely before bursting in a deeply gratifying baritone.
Tuskripper and Painteater slowed and both turned north, their warbands temporarily merging. The effect was, for lack of any other word, vivaciously violent. Dancing flame was blasted outward, sliding into the early pockets of burst flesh and chitin, consuming the enemy from the inside.
"Fine to see you today Rip," cooed Painteater, "I still need a drummer!"
"Trax yourself Eata, your music sucks." Painteater convulsed in laughter and turned the volume up. The gangbosses veered away from one another, making new passes into the heart of the invading force.
Painteater nearly lost his head as a great fat something trumped fire at him. "Oi oi oi!" he screamed to the wind.
His crew responded, "to eleven!" The volume of the speakers shook small rocks and body parts on the ground as the bikes thundered past. Co-phasal sound waves piled on to one another, creating a devastating doppler effect as the bikes pushed further and further towards the, as Painteater called it "Burning Asstillery", sending the beasts in their path straight into the air or hurled back at speed. A few speakers blew out, but what was the point of it all if they didn't blow out a few speakers?
Fire came tumbling down as more shots lit the sky. Riding in Painteater's sidecar, a mad squat with four sets of ears and no eyes played with dials and sliders until the speakers throbbed with bass. The burning goo bounced, once, twice off the thudding sound waves as the internal organs of a nearby squat were liquefied, to his joyous moans. Soon the gang was in firing range of the Asstillery. Fore guns opened fire in quick brrraps to the beat of the vibrating bass. It added a certain staccato to the monotone speakers. Most of the autogun fire ricocheted from the beasts' armor, but a few found purchase in it's flaming sphincter, compromising the integrity of it's lining. Two melted from the inside out while another one fired in between beats and consumed six bikers in a roiling flame.
"Rip! Where the happy hell is Grungey Gus?" Paintereater called over the torc.
"Augustus Grim is running a perimeter on another batch she ran into on her way over! It's us and Spinehew, she's just a few minutes out. Bike problems."
"Bike problems?" Painteater asked innocently, "How did that happen?"
"Not now Painteater, not now."
"Of course my illustrious lordling, I remain your humble servant."
Tuskripper's perfect day became a little less perfect.
+++Scribe Ojib's Note: You know who would have been great at recording Guilliman's dressing habits? Ordatus. Ordatus would have been great at it. Would he have fecked the whole thing up? Yes, absolutely, it is what Ordatus does. The Guard stands, the Astartes kill, and Ordatus ruins everything he touches! I had to personally go down to the data recovery room and re-cleanse the white noise out of six separate pict feeds [ref 09300000000012124424/AS.146, 146, 148, and 150] which is why I got through so little of the actual work of recording history. Would Ordatus misidentify Guilliam's macragge blue robe with calgar blue trim with his calgar blue robe with macragge blue trim? Obviously! He'd serve the Imperium better as spare parts for a sewage servitor.
On an related note, I was paid a visit by a rather brutish individual today claiming to be Ordatus's wife. She had a set of very strong words for me and even picked up a scroll... A HISTORICAL RECORD and threatened me with it over my treatment of our shared burden - Ordatus. Given that she'd somehow penetrated the security of this semi-Inquisitorial installation and was brandishing the History of Men of Iron Fourth Edition (THE Fourth Edition you incompetent buffons) like a cudgel; I shot her. I am quiet pleased with the potency of the digital needler as its effect was sufficiently instantaneous as to protect the blessed scroll and prevent further penetration into these hallowed halls. My compliments to the quartermaster of the Officio Assassinorum, when you next see her. I understand there will be paperwork resulting from the incompetence of the security staff and my discharging of a weapon on site. Please have it sent to Ordatus for completion.
submitted by Dwovar to 40kLore [link] [comments]


2020.07.09 07:06 Covert_Cuttlefish Strontium Ratio Variation in Marine Carbonates

Our dear friend SaggysHealthAlt posted an article titled Strontium Ratio Variation in Marine Carbonates from IRC at /creation. The paper states:
In 1948, geologist F. E. Wickman predicted that the decay of 87Rb (a rubidium isotope) in the earth’s crust and mantle would be reflected in a related increase in the 87 S^ 86Sr (two strontium isotopes) in seawater as well as in strontium-bearing marine precipitates.
Now of course geologists cannot go back in time to test the sea water (shout out to my boy Paul Price who vehemently argues we can’t use the past to test anything, and also argues a single geological formation falsifies long ages, pick one dude) so they had to use marine precipitates (calcite) instead. When precipitation occurs the ratio between 87 S^ 86Sr in the calcite is the same in the both the water and precipitate, so marine carbonates are a near perfect proxy for 87 S^ 86Sr in sea water assuming the rocks have not undergone alteration post diagenesis. Alteration (specifically recrystallization) results in a lower SCa ratio in the recrystallization calcite compared to biogenic calcite, and is detectable using spectrometry. Unfortunately for Wickman analysis of 87 S^ 86Sr doesn’t show an increase over the past ~550ma, but an erratic line appears as the ratio is graphed.
ICR asks five questions about the studies it pulled the graphs from.
How is it possible for the relative natural abundance of 87Sr and 86Sr to be virtually the same today as it was 560 million years ago? If the only source of 87Sr in the crust and thus in seawater is the decay of 87Rb, shouldn’t the ratio of 87S86Sr have steadily increased over a half-billion-year-plus timespan?
This assumes creationists misunderstanding of geological uniformitarianism, that is everything happens slowly. Not only does this misconstrue Lyell’s work, it also doesn’t reflect modern geology. We know that rates and processes change over time.
The primary control on the 87 S^ 86Sr ratio is the amount of continental runoff. Hydrothermal input from mid-Atlantic ridges and dissolution of sea floor carbonates also play a roll, however the latter is primarily a buffer and realistically is not a major factor. There are three primary models, glacial, uplift, and hydrothermal that attempt to explain the observed curve (let’s be honest, squiggle). I’ll keep things short and sweet, but if you’re interested Mead, G. A., & Hodell, D. A. 1995 has a good breakdown of the models.
Glacial: increased runoff due to glaciers will increase the strontium ratio, however this is problematic as rock with a high Sr ratio is more competent (harder to erode) and metamorphism would be required to sufficiently increase the Sr ratio.
Uplift: The Himalayan mountain system contains both the metamorphism and mass wasting required to increase the SR ratio; however, uplift began too late to be the only factor.
Hydrothermal: At mid oceanic ridges the strontium ratio in sea water matches MORBs (mid ocean ridge basalts). MORBs have a lower ratio than sea water so increased hydrothermal activity will depress the ratio. Currently the model doesn’t mirror the squiggle, but as of 1995 (Probably older than half the people reading this, but it’s enough to debunk the article) only regional studies have been done, more global work is needed. I’m not up to date with the literature so maybe this has been resolved, if not low oil prices will limit the ability to collect new samples.
So, we can see there are hypothesis of why squiggle exists, however more work is clearly needed.
There is no good reason to expect the ratio in the ocean to match the ratio in rocks.
Why do Burke and his co-authors throw away similar-aged samples with low strontium content or high insoluble content in order to obtain tighter clustering of the 87S86Sr ratio?
From Burke’s paper:
We have found empirically that tighter clustering of 87 S 86 Sr values among coeval Mesozoic and Paleozoic samples is achieved when samples with low strontium contents or high insoluble residues are eliminated. Thus, our Mesozoic and Paleozoic data are limited to samples that contain at least 200 ppm Sr and not more than 10% dilute acid insoluble residue… The probable explanation for the improved clustering is that the restriction decreases the fraction of samples that have not retained the marine 87 S 86 Sr value characteristic of their time of deposition. (my emphasis)
They wanted their graph to be tighter, and the best way to achieve this was to limit the number of diagenetically altered samples in their dataset which would not have reflected the original marine isotopic signature. Notably the author of the creationist paper didn’t accuse the authors of the more recent work of messing with the data, and their graphs showed the same trend.
  1. Do the dramatic gyrations of the 87 Sr / 86 Sr ratio better fit catastrophic mixing over a much shorter time interval?
I assume that’s a rhetorical question? The resident time of 87 Sr / 86 Sr in the ocean is 2.5 million years, and there are good controls of the ages of the rocks the samples came from. More on that later.
The maximum value that the seawater 87 Sr / 86 ratio can reach in this model is 0.720 if contributions only come from sialic (crustal) rocks. Yet, values of 0.748 and 0.930 are observed in modern isochrons constructed from crustal rocks.8,9
Austin and Snelling should publish their work in peer reviewed journals rather than ICR if that’s the case. After all, Snelling doesn’t have the best track record regarding isochrons. I’m sure the scientific community would be interested to know if there’s actually a problem here.
Finally, stratigraphic dating was apparently used to establish the time frame during which each group of marine deposits was set down. How do we know that a certain rock layer was laid down 100 million years ago? We’re told we “know” how old the rock layer is because of the fossils it contains, and we “know” how old the marine deposits are because of the rock layer they occur in. This is circular reasoning at its clearest and not acceptable science.
Nicholas Steno (1638-1686) would like a world with the author of the paper. The primary method of dating the rocks used in this study were magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy (forams). I discussed the horseshit argument of circular reasoning here. Everything in the post is first year geology, this is clear give away nothing in the article should be taken seriously. Once again, ICR “peer review” lets us down. Don’t try to pass that off as “it’s a layman article bro”; this will be reaching a much wider audience of uninformed people, it’s arguably more important to be as accurate as possible.
The creationist article ends by repeating that the squiggle could be formed by catastrophic mixing of waters. Of course, they don’t provide an evidence or models explaining how cataclysmic event could happen. Finally, they say that prior to 560ma the Sr curve was always increasing without providing a source for the claim.
We have a squiggly 87 Sr / 86 line between 560ma and today, this is a fact. The question is HOW. geologist have some good ideas, but more work is needed. Creationists are lying and saying a cataclysmic event is needed to explain the idea. Yet they refuse to give a mechanism (how) that cataclysm occurred. Thanks for the Biblical fiction Cupps, I'd file this along side the Expanse, but it's not worth the shelf space.
Saggy, I’m certainly not suggesting geologists fully understand the controls on the Sr ratio, but this article is nothing more than questions the author can find with google and empty assertions. This seems to be a common theme in creationists papers. Let me know when you want to debate geology on discord or zoom, we don't have to do it on reddit.
inb4 “lol nice encyclopedia, if you have to refute me that just means I’m right.”
submitted by Covert_Cuttlefish to DebateEvolution [link] [comments]


2020.07.04 21:06 conker87yt 🔵 Conker Plays Minecraft 2 – -Insert Delta Symbol Pun Here- (#06)

[🔵 Conker Plays Minecraft 2 – -Insert Delta Symbol Pun Here- (#06)]
[ https://youtu.be/LSWmB6GxaFY ]
In this episode we enter the nether, again, find a basalt delta and mine its sweet, sweet resources. Date of recording: 30th June, 2020. New-fangled youtube timestamps: 00:00 - Video This is my main [Semi-Vanilla] Minecraft series in 1.16.1. There are currently (as of the recording and uploading of this episode) NO mods in this series. Once Forge is updated and then mods are updated then this list will be the best case scenario: • Appleskin • Better Advancements • Controlling • Double Slabs • Fast Leaf Decay • How Fortunate! • Inventory Sorter • JEI • Light Overlay • MouseTweaks • Nature's Compass • Ore Excavation • Simply Light • Sit • Speedy Hoppers • Vanilla Things • WorldEdit • Xaero's World Map Playlist here: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLT1GBk0bUNX91hf81jdEjTRB6h3q4tC5V Follow me on twitter: https://twitter.com/SimonFletcherGD. Please like, subscribe and upvote if you enjoyed this content! #Minecraft #Vanilla #SemiVanilla - -- --- ---- ----- ------ ------- -------- --------- ---------- ----------- ------------ extra tags: conker87,conkerLP,let's play,let us play,game,commentary,live commentary,60fps,30fps,720p,1080p
If the link doesn't work then there is a rogue backslash, comment and I'll remove it.
submitted by conker87yt to LetsPlayVideos [link] [comments]


2020.06.27 17:46 axolotl_peyotl Nan Madol, Lemuria & Ancient Weather Modification: The "8th Wonder of the World" was built by a mysterious culture in the Pacific. Using magnetized basalt connected to artificial pools with electric eels, Nan Madol was "a power station built to prevent tropical storms from becoming typhoons.“

Nan Madol on Wikipedia:
The city, constructed in a lagoon, consists of a series of small artificial islands linked by a network of canals. The site core with its stone walls encloses an area approximately 1.5 km long by 0.5 km wide and it contains nearly 100 artificial islets—stone and coral fill platforms—bordered by tidal canals.
The ruined city is one of today's great archaeological enigmas and is sometimes called "Atlantis," the "eighth wonder of the world," or the "Venice of the Pacific".
Nan Madol has been interpreted by some as the remains of one of the "lost continents" of Lemuria or Mu. Nan Madol was one of the sites James Churchward identified as being part of the lost continent of Mu, starting in his 1926 book The Lost Continent of Mu Motherland of Man.
The construction of Nan Madol, with exacting tolerances and extremely heavy basalt materials, necessitated a high degree of technical competency. Since no such society exists in the modern record this society must have been destroyed by dramatic means.
Nan Madol, Ancient Weather Modification Technology?
Sea level analysis, study of ocean-floor sediment, and examination of surrounding semi-submerged ruins at the base of Nan Madol and in the surrounding waters of Nan Madol put the approximate date for construction at approximately 12,000 years ago. The basic concept is that the last time that Nan Madol's underwater ruins would have been on dry land and above sea level is approximately 12,000 years ago - so unless some of it was intended to be built underwater then I don’t see how this could be wrong.
Conventional/mainstream scholars have failed to determine how it was made, who built it, when it was built, for what purpose it was built and where the building materials came from.
Nan Madol and Kosrae (a similar structure to Nan Madol also located in the Federated States of Micronesia) create a 300-mile-long zone in which typhoons are born and the first stages of their power and severity are developed.
The storms soon grow much larger and wind up ravishing the Philippines. Until recently, they were thought to be the exclusive result of masses of cold air convectored into conflict with water’s warmer temperatures. Mainstream meteorologists believe cyclones are produced during a three-step process by the initial intensity of the storm, temperature changes in the air it brings about, and subsequent heat exchange with the ocean. However, late in last century, Joseph Newman declared that:
The major effect in respect to hurricanes is electromagnetic. For a hurricane to remain a hurricane, it does not depend solely on the heat of the water over which it travels.
Pohnpei, the island attached to Nan Madol, has unique and constant subtle seismic activity. Seismic activity generates piezoelectricity. The piezoelectricity works with the strangely magnetized basalt to focus a concentrated coronal discharge skyward.
According to mainstream science, the natives of Pohnpei, a people who didn’t even make pottery, were supposed to have floated 250 million tonnes of prismatic magnetised basalt across vast ocean stretches
A Different Story
But there is a small problem with the orthodox account which presents a noticeable discrepancy between the materially ‘primitive’ state of the indigenous population versus the sophisticated organisational and mechanical capacity to spontaneously build a massive stone construction. Pohnpei is a small, mountainous, mostly uninhabitable island with a modest historical population of disjointed localised clans, estimated by the ‘must have been’ method at a total of maybe 20-30,000.
Even then characterised as typically Micronesian of the period; think tribal groups with canoes, thatched hut, grass skirt, bone fish-hook and shell necklaces.
How and why did such a typically naive fragmented society suddenly construct such an incongruous and disproportionate megalithic complex involving transport and erection of tens of thousands of basalt columns weighing several tonnes, often 50-60 tonnes? How did they even handle such massive objects? There is a logical incompatibility, not to say implausibility.
The local folklore provides answers, although in a sense it was not their own folklore – it was the stories of tall ‘different’ foreigners who arrived by boat long, long ago, in ‘past times’.
Nan Madol, Banaue and Davao
A very ancient, yet highly advanced technology of weather modification system may be behind the mysterious ruins of a possible Lemurian structure, the Nan Madol in the island of Pohnpei, Micronesia. It was said to protect the ancient Banaue Rice Terraces in Luzon that may had fed millions of ancient populace by diffusing typhoons like a huge electromagnetic device.
The Lost Lands of Mu and Lemuria
Situated in the Caroline Islands in the South Pacific, Nan Madol is a collection of about 100 ancient artificial islands connected by artificial canals built of megaton basalt blocks in order to act as a weather modification project built to prevent tropical storms from becoming typhoons.
This was accomplished by quarrying basalt, from a yet-unknown location), magnetizing it with a very peculiar magnetism, and generating power by having hundreds or thousands of electric eels in the canals, each yielding about 650 volts (if I remember correctly).
These artificial islets were built at the birthplace of typhoons in the Pacific ocean and this power station would essentially breakdown any new typhoons that would have formed, and make them release their energy in the form of downpours.
Platinum coffins were placed on the bottom of the islets in order to work as some sort of device that would keep the weather modification station from overloading with energy. According to the ancient stories, these lincoln-log looking basalt stones (which are upwards of 60 tons were moved by two powerful magicians in a few days).
There is a scientific explanation for this, which deals with magnetizing the basalt, making it featherweight, and levitating it into position, but that is a longer discussion for another time. There are still eels in the canals to this day.
There is absolutely no evidence that Nan Madol was were a city. There are no remains of any kind, minus a few burnt electric eels, which most probably resulted when there were electrical shortcircuits from time to time.
submitted by axolotl_peyotl to conspiracy [link] [comments]


2020.06.17 10:32 Nalina_PS Elephanta Caves in Mumbai, India. Hewn from solid basalt rock, dedicated to a hindu deity called Shiva. It's dated from the mid 5th to 6th century, AD.

Elephanta Caves in Mumbai, India. Hewn from solid basalt rock, dedicated to a hindu deity called Shiva. It's dated from the mid 5th to 6th century, AD. submitted by Nalina_PS to interestingasfuck [link] [comments]